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Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 6-1-1940
Event Description: This is "Lee Union Part 4: The Unexpected Cold War." In 1861, General Robert E. Lee sides with his country, the United States of America, rather than his home State of Virginia and the seceding Confederate States of America. He quickly crushes the Slavery Rebellion of 1861, and is elected President in 1864, but assassinated by a Southern sympathizer in 1865. With a different climate toward blacks, Native Americans and women, aided in the late 19th Century by certain Supreme Court decisions and enforced by the U.S. Army and the U.S. Department of Justice, race and gender are less of an issue in America in the 20th Century. Not only could women vote as soon as 1873, but two have been President of the United States, and one of them appointed Edith Galt, at the time a Senator from Virginia, to the Supreme Court. No Native American has become President, but Senator Robert Owen of Oklahoma was the Democratic nominee for President in 1916, Senator Charles Curtis of Kansas was elected Vice President in 1928, and some have been elected Governors of States. No African-American has been elected President, but William E.B. Du Bois has long served as U.S. Senator from Massachusetts, and many black men have starred in Major League Baseball. The U.S. entered World War I in May 1915, following the sinking of the Lusitania, and won it in November 1916. Russia soon had a Democratic revolution, and Aleksandr Kerensky has been President of the Russian Republic for 23 years. President Theodore Roosevelt guided the postwar peace negotiations, and gave hope to nationalists in Asia and the Middle East. But a worldwide depression broke out in 1929, leading to discontent and the rise of fascist governments in Europe. World War II broke out in 1938 when Chancellor Adolf Hitler led Nazi Germany to invade Czechoslovakia, and TR's niece, President Eleanor Roosevelt, led the Allies to defeat Germany and Japan in 1940. The Presidents since Robert E. Lee have been: Andrew Johnson (1865-69), William H. Seward (1869-72, died in office), Ulysses S. Grant (1872-77), Samuel J. Tilden (1877-81), James G. Blaine (1881-85), Grover Cleveland (1885-93), James A. Garfield (1893-94, assassinated), William McKinley (1894-97), Thomas J. Jarvis (1897-1901, assassinated), Woodrow Wilson (1901-04, died in office), Theodore Roosevelt (1904-19, resigned due to ill health), Henry Cabot Lodge (1919-21), Frances Cleveland (1921-29, widow of Grover), Herbert Hoover (1929-33) and Eleanor Roosevelt, who, today, makes the expected announcement that she will not seek a third term as President, something as yet achieved only by her uncle, who served four terms.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 6-2-1940
Event Description: Chancellor Erwin Rommel of Germany declares the beginning of the Fourth Reich, and abolishes the National Socialist or Nazi Party. He announces there will be an election for a new Reichstag (Parliament), and in this election he will lead the DNVP -- in English, the German National People's Party, which had been outlawed in 1933 by his predecessor and former Fuhrer, Adolf Hilter, whom Rommel had personally assassinated. Backed by his popularity as Germany's greatest living military leader and the man who liberated the country from Nazism, German voters give the DNVP a solid majority, while the SPD, the Social Democratic Party, runs a strong second and will serve as Die Opposition der Leute -- the People's Opposition. Kaiser Wilhelm III, using what limited power he still has under the restored Constitution of 1917, appoints Rommel to a full term as Chancellor.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 6-26-1940
Event Description: An article appears in German newspapers, and several foreign ones as well, an open letter from Chancellor Erwin Rommel. "Auf dem Persönlichkeitkult und seinen Folgen" -- in English, "On the Personality Cult and its Consequences" -- is given to the world in print due to Rommel's far greater skill at writing than at public speaking. He describes the horrors of the Nazi regime of 1933-39 under Adolf Hitler, including just how far Hitler was willing to take his repression of perceived enemies. Concentration camps were built in southern Germany and Austria, and as far more than just internment of political prisoners. Slave labor, sadistic scientific experiments, and even mass executions had begun. Rommel estimates that 2 million people died there, more than 1 million for no crime other than being Jewish. Rommel says these repressions, and the laws and security organizations that made them possible, were all fed by Hitler's use of his own personality, statements and beliefs as a new national religion for Germany. Rommel wants his Fourth Reich to be nationalist, with a strong economy and a strong military, but he does not want Germany to face aggression from the other powers of the world for a third time in this century. Presidents Roosevelt, de Gaulle and Kerensky, and Prime Minister Churchill, salute the speech as a great step forward for the new Germany.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 6-28-1940
Event Description: The Republican Convention, at the Convention Hall of the Philadelphia Civic Center, nominates one of the heroes of the recently concluded World War II, newly-retired General George S. Patton, for President, and Senator Charles McNary of Oregon for Vice President. Since the Democrats have not yet settled on a nominee to succeed the retiring President Eleanor Roosevelt, it is difficult, for the moment, for Patton to mount an effective opposition. He speaks for half an hour, spending two minutes praising President Roosevelt for her performance as Commander-in-Chief, five minutes criticizing her domestic policies -- "My fellow Americans, the New Deal has become old hat!" -- and the remaining 23 minutes telling of how he will keep America strong abroad, while encouraging personal responsibility, fiscal conservatism, and traditional American values at home. With no nominee yet chosen, oddsmakers say Patton is a shoo-in for election.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 6-30-1940
Event Description: Czar Alexander IV, the deposed Emperor of Russia, finally has an heir to his throne. Neither he, a 36-year-old hemophiliac, nor his wife, a German princess who has already suffered three miscarriages, have been in the best of health. But today, a son is born, named Nikolai after the would-be Czar's father.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 7-18-1940
Event Description: The Democratic Convention is held at Chicago Stadium. The Delegates go through 15 ballots before choosing Secretary of State Cordell Hull as their nominee for President, and Senator Millard Tydings of Maryland for Vice President. Hull has served outgoing President Eleanor Roosevelt as Secretary of State, the Party as Chairman of the National Committee, and his State of Tennessee in both houses of Congress. Being a Southerner might have hurt Hull in an earlier time, but with black people making economic and cultural gains even in the South, and plenty of people still living remembering Presidents Thomas Jarvis of North Carolina and Woodrow Wilson of Virginia, there is no longer a stigma against Presidential candidates from the region. But Hull has a speech impediment, making him sound a little like the cartoon character Elmer Fudd. With considerable difficulty -- almost sounding like the patrician New Yorker who wrote the speech, First Gentleman Franklin Roosevelt -- Hull manages to praise his predecessor as Party leader: "Not just the Dem-oc-ratic Pawty, but ouah nation, and, indeed, the whole wuhld, owes a gu-reat debt of gu-ratitude to ouah gu-reat and wonduhful leaduh, Missus Eleanoah... Er-rose-uh-velt!" But he mangles the next part of the speech, saying that "Puh-resident Er-rose-uh-velt has buh-rought this countwy not just a gu-reat militawy victowy, but unpawalleld pwospewity!" Radio comedians such as Bob Hope have a field day that lasts all the way to November 5, Election Day. The contrast between the diffident, bookish, lisping 68-year-old Hull and the gutsy, rugged, tough-talking 54-year-old Republican nominee, George S. Patton, could not be greater. And while Hull did serve in the military, that was in the Spanish-American War, two wars ago, as a Captain of infantry. Patton is a recently-retired five-star General who reminds everyone of helmets, medals, jeeps, tanks, and great victories over one of the most evil regimes in human history. Unless something catastrophic happens to Patton, he is going to win in a great landslide, and there appears to be nothing the Roosevelts can do about it.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 7-26-1940
Event Description: Clement Attlee and the Labour Party are swept to power in British elections, defeating the Conservative Party and Prime Minister Winston Churchill. A great wartime leader, Churchill had found governing in peacetime difficult.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-1-1940
Event Description: There is a new addition to the Roosevelt family. First Gentleman Franklin Roosevelt receives a Scottish terrier from a cousin, Margaret Suckley. Franklin names him Murray the Outlaw of Falahill, after an ancestor from the Scottish side of his family. This is soon shortened to "Fala." Newsreel cameras have a field day showing the puppy romping with Franklin and President Eleanor Roosevelt on the grounds of the White House. Several prominent Republicans claim it is a desperate attempt by the Roosevelts to take attention away from the wildly popular Republican nominee, General George S. Patton, and thus help the Democratic nominee, Secretary of State Cordell Hull.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-29-1940
Event Description: October 29, 1940: In a last-ditch attempt to save the election for the Hull-Tydings ticket, President Eleanor Roosevelt had asked the Congress to pass the G.I. Bill of Rights, granting extensive benefits to returning veterans of World War II. She knew that General Patton's election would surely mean a Republican takeover of Congress, with a very conservative Speaker (now-Minority Leader Joseph W. Martin of Massachusetts) and even more conservative committee chairmen, and that they would never pass such a bill even if Patton supported it. The Bill passes the House easily, and it takes an impassioned plea from Senators Robert Wagner of New York and William Du Bois of Massachusetts to stop a threatened filibuster. The President signs the bill. Republicans are unhappy about it, and Senate Minority Leader Charles McNary, the Vice Presidential nominee, calls it "Eleanor's October Surprise," adding a classic phrase to the American political lexicon. But, to everyone's surprise, Patton praises it in his first campaign speech after hearing about the signing. "Nothing is too good for the men and women who have honorably served this country in uniform, especially in wartime!" he says. By supporting the bill, which New York Herald Tribune political columnist Robert J. Donovan calls "the greatest act of political jujitsu in American hsitory," it looks like Patton has insured that very few voters will switch from him to Secretary Hull.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 11-5-1940
Event Description: George Smith Patton Jr. is elected the 33rd President of the United States. The great General of World War II wins 374 Electoral Votes and 57 percent of the popular vote, while his Democratic opponent, Secretary of State Cordell Hull, takes 157 Electoral Votes and 43 percent of the popular vote. Hull wins only 15 States – outside of his native South, only Maryland and Rhode Island. Charles L. McNary of Oregon, the outgoing Senate Minority Leader, is elected Vice President. The Republicans also win control of both the House of Representatives and the Senate. Among the Senators elected today is Joseph R. McCarthy, a 32-year-old Wisconsin circuit judge. He had defeated incumbent Senator Robert LaFollette Jr. in the Republican Primary.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 12-12-1940
Event Description: Joseph Crandall Jr. is discharged from the U.S. Army, and, as his father, Joseph Sr., had in 1917, returns to his home town of East Brunswick, New Jersey.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 1-20-1941
Event Description: George S. Patton is sworn in as the nation's 33rd President. He begins to dismantle the New Deal built by outgoing President Eleanor Roosevelt, but leaves some programs intact. He sees the wisdom in veterans' benefits, the electrical power provided by the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Rural Electrification Administration, the discipline instilled in young men and teenage boys by the Civilian Conservation Corps, and the construction projects of the Works Project and Public Works Administration. But the National Recovery Administration, a major sticking point with conservatives, is history. Mrs. Roosevelt and her husband and chief political advisor, Franklin, return to their separate homes at Hyde Park, New York. The American people have been unaware of their leading separate lives outside of the political sphere.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 1-30-1941
Event Description: Supreme Court Justice James McReynolds retires. He had wanted to retire for some time, but was waiting for a Republican to succeed President Eleanor Roosevelt. President George Patton appoints Senator James F. Byrnes of South Carolina to replace him. Although a Democrat, Byrnes is a conservative and a staunch anti-socialist, and fits Patton's profile of what a Supreme Court Justice should be.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 6-20-1941
Event Description: Malcolm Little graduates from junior high school in Lansing, Michigan, at the top of his class. He tells a teacher that he wants to be a lawyer. She tells him that it will be difficult for a young Negro to make it through law school and to pass the bar, but that he has the intellectual capacity to try it.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 6-29-1941
Event Description: President Patton signs the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1941, creating the Interstate Highway System. Officially, it is a plan to build roadways outside of small towns to transport military vehicles and around major cities to evacuate them in case of impending enemy attack, a plan designed by Patton's Secretary of War, former General Dwight D. Eisenhower. But Secretary of Commerce Theodore Roosevelt Jr., another General of World War II, sees in it the potential for vast commercial expansion of America's hinterlands. Patton likes that a lot.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 6-30-1941
Event Description: Charles Evans Hughes retires as Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. Like Justice James McReynolds, he was waiting for Eleanor Roosevelt to leave the Presidency and a Republican to enter it. President George Patton appoints former U.S. Attorney General Harlan Stone to succeed him.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 7-4-1941
Event Description: The Territory of Alaska is admitted to the Union as the 49th State. The Territory of Hawaii is also admitted as the 50th State. The vulnerability of these territories to Japanese attack in the Pacific phase of World War II spurred their legislatures to seek Statehood. Although Queen Kapiolani had wanted to maintain the independence of her Kingdom, the 1938 bombing of Pearl Harbor convinced her that Statehood was the right path. Now 38 years old, Kapiolani is appointed Governor by the new State Legislature, to serve until a special election to be held next year. She will win it, and continues to be re-elected until her death.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 9-7-1941
Event Description: The Cleveland Rams, unable to make money or win many games, have moved to Los Angeles. Making his National Football League debut is 22-year-old halfback Jackie Robinson, who grew up in nearby Pasadena and previously played at the Los Angeles Coliseum for UCLA. He is not the first black player in the NFL, but he serves notice that he is a force to be reckoned with, rushing for 175 yards and two touchdowns, as the Rams beat the Pittsburgh Steelers, 17-14.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 9-28-1941
Event Description: The New York Yankees finish the season three games ahead of the Cleveland Indians and win the American League Pennant. Center fielder Joe DiMaggio had a 56-game hitting streak between May 15 and July 16. For the Indians, Bob Feller - who had missed the 1939 season and the first half of 1940 due to his service as a Navy gunner in World War II, but came on strong late in the season - won 30 games, the first 30-win season in the major leagues since Dizzy Dean won 30 for the 1934 St. Louis Cardinals, and the first in the AL since Lefty Grove won 31 for the 1931 Philadelphia Athletics. (Jim Bagby, father of Feller’s current teammate, Jim Bagby Jr., won 31 in 1920, the last time the Indians won a Pennant.) Aside from Hank Greenberg of the Detroit Tigers, who also missed all of ’39 and the first half of ’40 before being discharged, Feller is the only established player of All-Star caliber to have missed significant time due to wartime service, although several veterans who have not yet reached the majors will go on to do so. Also today, Ted Williams of the Boston Red Sox goes 6-for-8 in a season-ending doubleheader, lifting his batting average to .406. It is the first .400 average since Bill Terry hit .401 for the 1930 New York Giants, and the first in the AL since Harry Heilmann hit .403 for the 1923 Detroit Tigers. The Brooklyn Dodgers have won the National League Pennant in a tight race with the St. Louis Cardinals, their first Pennant in 21 years. But they will go on to lose a heartbreaking World Series to the Yankees in five games.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 1-7-1942
Event Description: The Russian Republic, still struggling to recover from World War II, faces a grave crisis. Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov attempts to topple the democratically elected government of President Aleksandr Kerensky. But Kerensky has Field Marshal Georgy Zhukov on his side, and he has the White Army on his. The coup is stopped, and Molotov is imprisoned. Within a month, he will be tried, convicted and executed. It is the third and last major challenge to Kerensky's rule.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 1-16-1942
Event Description: Actress Carole Lombard announces that she has filed for divorce from her husband, actor Clark Gable. They had been fighting for a while, but Gable is deeply saddened. Lombard continues to make movies.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 3-4-1942
Event Description: President Aleksander Kerensky announces his retirement, on the 25th anniversary of the Russian Revolution. The election for a new five-year term as President of the Russian Republic will be held on the first Monday in April.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 4-6-1942
Event Description: Nikita Krushchev, Governor of the Moscow prefecture and a hero of World War II for his defense of it, is elected the second President of the Russian Republic. He is the nominee of the Liberal Democratic Party, and defeats Lavrenti Beria, a Politburo member and the nominee of the People's Revolutionary Party. The election was close until the greatest Russian hero of World War II, Marshal Georgy Zhukov, announced he could not support Beria -- but never said that he would support Krushchev. Nevertheless, Krushchev appoints Zhukov Minister of Defense. Despite his landslide loss, Beria vows to try again.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 4-14-1942
Event Description: Bob Feller pitches a no-hitter as the Cleveland Indians beat the Detroit Tigers, 5-0 at Briggs Stadium (later known as Tiger Stadium). It is the first time a no-hitter has been pitched on baseball’s Opening Day.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 5-14-1942
Event Description: The State of Israel declares its independence. It is established following negotiations with Britain, which had held the land called Palestine. Britain, America, France, Russia and, in a generous gesture by Chancellor Erwin Rommel, Germany all recognize it. With most of the world's major powers backing the new nation, the Arab nations surrounding it agree that war would not be a good idea -- for now.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 8-1-1942
Event Description: Developer William Levitt has been building small, low-cost family homes on New York's Long Island. The communities are called Levittowns, and will be copied in suburban areas all over America. Not to be outdone, in his bid to do whatever the American veteran deserves, President Patton has recommended and signed legislation making it easier for inner-city veterans to have improved housing. In New York City, Stuyvesant Town and Peter Cooper Village in Manhattan and Parkchester in The Bronx, become the first federally-funded "housing projects" -- or, as the happy veterans call them, "Patton Projects." A coalition of Democrats and liberal Republicans were needed to pass the legislation, as the conservative Republicans who dominate Congress didn't want it, but Patton leaned on them to allow a vote. In the Forties and Fifties, Patton Projects will be all the rage. Beginning in the Sixties, they will inspire rage.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 8-15-1942
Event Description: After two years of negotiations, Britain gives up the Raj. Seven separate nations are formed from the Indian subcontinent. India will be led by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. To the west, Pakistan, a nation for the subcontinent's Muslims, will be led by Governor-General Mohammed Ali Jinnah. To the northwest is Khalistan, a combination of the regions of Kashmir and Punjab, for the subcontinent's Sikhs. To the east are created the nations of Bangladesh, Bhutan and Burma. And on an island off the southern tip of India is the new republic of Ceylon, later to be renamed Sri Lanka. Mohandas K. Gandhi, the spiritual leader of the Indian independence movement, is tinged with sadness, but agrees with Nehru that this was the best deal that the people of the subcontinent could get from the British government of Prime Minister Clement Attlee.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 9-6-1942
Event Description: Buck Leonard, first baseman of the Pittsburgh Pirates, hits his 500th career home run off Claude Passeau of the Chicago Cubs. Only Babe Ruth and Jimmie Foxx got there before he did, and Leonard is the first National League Player to do so. He appeared to be in a race with Washington Senators catcher Josh Gibson to see who would be the first black player to reach the milestone. But Gibson, now with 472 homers, has been slowing down, and behaving erratically. The Senators, unwilling to meet the salary demands of such a great but unreliable player, will release him after the season.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 11-3-1942
Event Description: Quentin Roosevelt, District Attorney of Manhattan, son of one of America's greatest Presidents, cousin of another, and brother of the U.S. Secretary of Commerce, is elected Governor of New York as a Republican, defeating the Democratic incumbent, Herbert Lehman. But the Democrats make enough gains in Congress to take both houses by slim margins.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 1-31-1943
Event Description: After a 16-year struggle, the Red Army led by Mao Zedong topples the Nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek. A red flag flies over Beijing, and China becomes the first country on Earth to have a Communist government. Chiang and his Nationalists flee to the offshore island of Formosa (later known as Taiwan).

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 2-1-1943
Event Description: President George Patton gives a speech from the Oval Office. For the first time, a White House address is televised. He condemns the Communist takeover of China, "sending six hundred million people who had been free into slavery." He vows that if dictator Mao Zedong threatens any other nation with invasion and takeover, "America will act, as it did against Germany, Italy and Japan." The Cold War is on.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 2-7-1943
Event Description: "I hold in my hand a list of 205 individuals who served in various capacities in the Eleanor Roosevelt Administration who were active agents of a Communist conspiracy to enslave the world, including the takeover of this very country!" So says Senator Joseph R. McCarthy of Wisconsin in a speech at a Lincoln Day celebration in West Virginia. He had pushed for Senate investigations of such individuals, but his youth and inexperience caused Senate Republican leaders to dismiss him. Now, with both houses of Congress under Democratic control, he says that the opposing party is "trying to sweep eight years of treason under the rug!" The speech makes McCarthy look ridiculous to many, but a lot better to Republicans in the Congress and in the hinterlands.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 4-13-1943
Event Description: On the 200th anniversary of his birth, the Thomas Jefferson Memorial is dedicated in Washington, D.C. President George S. Patton gives the dedication address. Former Presidents Eleanor Roosevelt, Herbert Hoover and Frances Cleveland also attend. It will be the last public appearance for the 78-year-old Mrs. Cleveland, the first female President, and, through 2006, the only woman to be both a President and a First Lady.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 5-1-1943
Event Description: After about a year in office, President Nikita Krushchev attends a May Day parade in White Square in Moscow. His administration, to some, has been more "red" than "white," with economic, industrial and agricultural policies that make Eleanor Roosevelt's New Deal in 1933-40 America look like the program of a conservative Republican by comparison. American politicians such as Senators Joe McCarthy of Wisconsin, William Jenner of Indiana, Pat McCarran of Nevada and Theodore Bilbo of Mississippi call Krushchev a "socialist," a "Communist," a "Red devil," a "a fat red boil on the body of humanity," and worse.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 6-2-1943
Event Description: Nile Kinnick, winner of the 1939 Heisman Trophy as a running back for the University of Iowa, graduates from Yale Law School. Having served in World War II, he has been quoted as saying, "When the members of any nation have come to regard their country as nothing more than the plot of ground on which they reside, and their government as a mere organization for providing police or contracting treaties; when they have ceased to entertain any warmer feelings for one another than those which interest or personal friendship or a mere general philanthropy may produce, the moral dissolution of that nation is at hand." There are many in his home State who believe he will one day run for public office, although, as a Christian Scientist, his religion may be an obstacle.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 7-8-1943
Event Description: Jean Moulin, a French hero of World War II, is elected a deputy to the Assemblée Nationale.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 2-25-1944
Event Description: Vice President Charles McNary dies unexpectedly of pneumonia at age 69. President Patton is facing re-election without an incumbent Vice President as his running mate, though he can appoint one, pending confirmation by both houses of Congress, through the 19th Amendment.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 3-2-1944
Event Description: “Kowloon,” a film about international exiles trying to leave Hong Kong for America or Britain in late 1938, before America entered World War II, wins the Academy Award for Best Picture. Although regarded by some film fans as an all-time classic due to the doomed love story between Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman, and a script containing some of the best-remembered lines in film history, its portrayal of the ever-threatening, murderous Japanese in the days leading up to the bombing of Pearl Harbor has been criticized by some as racist toward Asians.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 3-7-1944
Event Description: President Patton appoints Senator Joseph R. McCarthy of Wisconsin to be the new Vice President of the United States, intending the 36-year-old anti-Communist firebrand to be nominated on the ticket at the Republican Convention in August. Many Republicans are furious, wanting one of the sons of 1904-19 President Theodore Roosevelt: Governor Quentin Roosevelt of New York, or Secretary of Commerce Theodore Roosevelt Jr. But the GOP's Congressional leaders, Joe Martin of Massachusetts in the House and Wallace White of Maine in the Senate, insisted on the strongest anti-Communist in the Congress. Knowing how much McCarthy had flattered and praised him, Patton accepted their insistence.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 7-21-1944
Event Description: As it was four years ago, the Democratic Convention in Chicago is a mess, with no one figure seemingly capable of winning on the first ballot. Former Secretary of Agriculture and 1940 Vice Presidential nominee Henry Wallace is considered too liberal, especially in this age of rising antagonism toward Communism and Wallace's pro-labor ways. Senator Harry Truman of Missouri is mentioned, but says he doesn't want the nomination. Some suggest nominating Justice William O. Douglas, but he lets it be known that he does not want to leave the Supreme Court to run. Justice James F. Byrnes, however, is, but his conservative record on the Court and as a former Senator from South Carolina stall his drive. The Convention turns to a less-strident Southerner, Senator Claude Pepper of Florida. He asks the Convention to nominate former Congressman Arthur W. Mitchell of Illinois, to be the first black major-party nominee for Vice President. Though historically less receptive to civil rights for blacks than the Republicans, the Democrats nominate a Pepper-Mitchell ticket. Pepper promises a campaign of ideas and issues, and, if elected, a Presidency where there will be "calm, cool leadership." He softly critiques President Patton's policies, but the one he really rips is Vice President McCarthy: "Is this the kind of man you want to be a heartbeat away from the Presidency?" Pepper has turned what had been a dreary Convention into a celebration of democracy, and hits the campaign trail within striking distance of Patton in the polls. It appears that McCarthy may, in fact, be a drag on the GOP ticket.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 7-25-1944
Event Description: Samuel Crandall is born in New Brunswick, New Jersey, the son of a World War II veteran and the grandson of a World War I veteran. He grows up in neighboring East Brunswick.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 7-27-1944
Event Description: For the first time (and, through 2012, the only time), the Olympic Games are held in New York City, with a stunning opening ceremony held at Yankee Stadium in the Bronx, representing the world's recovery from the horrors of World War II. The Polo Grounds and Madison Square Garden in Manhattan, Ebbets Field in Brooklyn, Ruppert Stadium in Newark, Theodore Roosevelt Stadium in Jersey City, and a series of temporary stadiums at the 1939-40 World's Fair site in Queens host the quadrennial. The big stars of the Games are Dutch track stars, at Downing Stadium on Randall's Island in the East River: Cornelius Warmerdam, who becomes the first man to high-jump 16 feet, and Fanny Blankers-Koen, a 26-year-old working mother who wins three Gold Medals in running events.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 8-1-1944
Event Description: Polls show Senator Pepper in a virtual tie with President Patton. Patton meets with some Republican leaders, who urge him to ditch Vice President McCarthy at the Convention, asking him to nominate someone older, more experienced, more mature, less strident, but still conservative and anti-Communist. Someone like Secretary of Commerce Theodore Roosevelt Jr. Or his brother, Governor Quentin Roosevelt of New York. Patton refuses: "I'm keeping McCarthy. He's a fighter. He's my man and I'm sticking with him. We're going to have to fight the Democrats soon anyway. It might as well be now while we've already got the army here to do it."

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 8-11-1944
Event Description: The Republican Convention is held at the Kansas City Municipal Auditorium. It renominates President George S. Patton and nominates Vice President Joseph S. McCarthy for a full term. McCarthy gives a speech slamming the Democrats for "their unconscionable softness on the Communist threats coming from Russia and China" -- never mind that Russian President Nikita Krushchev has never, unlike Chinese dictator Mao Zedong, declared himself to be a Communist. McCarthy also calls Senator Claude Pepper of Florida, the Democratic nominee for President, "Red Pepper," and former Congressman Arthur W. Mitchell of Illinois, the Vice Presidential nominee, "Moscow Mitchell" in one paragraph and "Manchuria Mitchell" in another. The gallery, packed with McCarthy's hard-right supporters, is ecstatic, cheering much more than many of the more moderate delegates. But Patton gets everyone on their feet, slashing into the Democratic Congress for trying to raise taxes to pay for Patton's housing and highway programs. "Give me back a Republican Congress," he says, "and I'll never again have to deal with these damn Democrats and their tax-hike proposals! They pushed me to raise taxes, and I said no. They pushed again, and I said no. They pushed again, and I said to them... READ MY LIPS: NO NEW TAXES!" Coming into the Convention with a poll lead so small it was within the margin of error, Patton leaves with a 12-point bulge. It looks like another landslide. But, just to be on the safe side, Patton asks actor John Wayne, very conservative but more trained with audiences, to ride with McCarthy to keep him comparatively calm. "The Duke" is happy to oblige. He likes McCarthy, but likes Patton more, and doesn't want anything, even McCarthy, to jeopardize a second Patton term.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 9-1-1944
Event Description: Malcolm Little enters the University of Michigan, with an eye toward law school.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-9-1944
Event Description: The St. Louis Browns -- perhaps inaptly named -- win their first and only World Series, due largely to the highest concentration of black players any major league team has yet had. Pitchers Satchel Paige and Hilton Smith, third baseman Judy Johnson, left fielder Willard Brown and right fielder Jimmie Crutchfield joined with white players such as first baseman George McQuinn, shortstop Vern Stephens and pitchers Jack Kramer and Denny Galehouse to bring the Browns their first American League Pennant. They even defeat the St. Louis Cardinals, the historically more successful team, who have Buck O'Neil playing first base, Leon Day as not only a great pitcher but also a good hitter with several key pinch-hits to his credit, and Martin DiHigo pitching and making spot starts at second base. These black players joined their white stars, including an outfield of Stan Musial, Terry Moore and Enos Slaughter, and the slick-fielding shortstop Marty Marion. But the Browns win in six games, taking the finale, 4-3 as Hilton Smith outduels white Cardinal Howie Pollet. For years, the Cardinals won Pennants (this was their third straight) but were tenants at Sportsman's Park, owned by the Browns. By 1953, most of the Brows' better players, black and white, will have retired, the Anheuser-Busch brewery will buy the Cardinals and the ballpark, and the Browns will move and become the Baltimore Orioles for the 1954 season. This 1944 World Championship, won in the "Streetcar Series" or "Trolley Series," is the franchise's high-water mark in St. Louis, although they will also have significant success in Baltimore. O'Neil and Day helped the Cards win the World Series in 1942, and will again in 1946.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-11-1944
Event Description: Vice President Joseph R. McCarthy is presented with the Distinguished Flying Cross, in a ceremony carefully filmed for the newsreel cameras. He receives it for the 32 missions he flew as a gunner and observer in the U.S. Army Air Corps during World War II -- or so his record claims. President George S. Patton, believing this story, calls McCarthy "a true hero of the greatest war ever fought in human history." At first, no one seems to be checking to see whether the story is true.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 11-7-1944
Event Description: The Presidential election is far closer than anyone could have imagined. In the popular vote, the Republican ticket of President George S. Patton and Vice President Joseph R. McCarthy wins 24.3 million votes, and the Democratic ticket of Senator Claude Pepper of Florida and former Congressman Arthur W. Mitchell of Illinois wins 23.3 million, the closest popular margin since the four-way race of 1900. The Electoral Vote was also close, with Patton winning 271, one more than a majority, and Pepper 267. The candidates split the Northeast. Patton swept the West, and swept the Midwest except for its two largest States, Illinois and Michigan. Pepper had almost swept the South... almost, because the key State turned out to be Texas with its 23 Electoral Votes. On the eve of the election, Martin Dies, nominally a Democrat but very conservative and one of Congress' most reckless chargers of anti-Communism, had crossed party lines to endorse the Patton-McCarthy ticket, citing the alleged Communist connections of Pepper and Mitchell. In the years to come, it will be revealed that Dies had received bribes from racist groups which influenced his vote. Pepper decides not to contest the election, however. Outside of Texas, most observers believed that any prejudice toward black Vice Presidential nominee Mitchell had been canceled out by concerns over McCarthy's inexperience and rantings. Despite the closeness of the election, the Republicans retake control of both houses of Congress by slight margins. This was also the first year in which World War II veterans, most of them Republicans, would be elected to Congress in large numbers. Among them are Richard Nixon in California and Gerald Ford in Michigan.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 12-15-1944
Event Description: Glenn Miller is hosptialized in Los Angeles following a massive heart attack. Just 40 years old, the superstar bandleader and trombonist had been a very heavy smoker, and is found to have lung damage as well. He will be unable to perform for many years, as he recuperates at his home in the mountains of Colorado.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 3-1-1945
Event Description: Senator Harry S Truman, Democrat of Missouri, is offered the vacant post of Commissioner of Baseball by the Major League Baseball team owners. Although he loves serving in the Senate, the Commissionership pays considerably more, and is facing a difficult run for re-election in 1946. He happily accepts.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 12-20-1945
Event Description: President George S. Patton completes some work at the White House, and heads off to Camp Esther, the Presidential retreat in the mountains of Western Maryland, named for Esther Cleveland, daughter of Presidents Grover and Frances Cleveland. He plans to remain there with his wife Beatrice through Christmas and New Year's.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 12-21-1945
Event Description: President George S. Patton dies in an accident on the grounds of Camp Esther. He is returning from hunting on the grounds, and his car is coming up a hill. But a Secret Service Agent at the top of the hill forgets to hit the emergency brake on his car, and it rolls down the hill. In the snow, Patton's driver can't see it and swerve until it is too late. The Presidential car, a 1939 Cadillac, flips over, and all on board, including the driver and another Secret Service Agent, are injured. Patton dies at 3:34 PM, Eastern Standard Time, before any medical attention can arrive. He is 60 years old. Word comes to the Vice President within minutes at his home in Appleton, Wisconsin. At 6:09 PM, Central Standard Time, Joseph Raymond McCarthy is sworn in as the 34th President of the United States. At 37, he is the youngest President in American history. A Presidential funeral will be held at Arlington National Cemetery on Christmas Eve. And, in the drawing of Washington Post cartoonist Herb Block, America now has "President Scrooge."

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 1-21-1946
Event Description: President Joseph R. McCarthy, in office for just one month, delivers the State of the Union Address. He tells a nationwide radio and television audience that he grieves with the American people over the death of President George S. Patton, and that, while he did not seek the Presidency, he will carry out the demands of the office. "Those demands insist that I protect this nation against all enemies, foreign and domestic," he says, correct in fact if not in the exact wording of the Presidential Oath of Office -- the words actually come from the Congressional Oath of Office. He says that he will work especially hard to root out Communist agents inside the U.S., which, he claims, are inspired not just by the Red Chinese, but by the socialist government of President Nikita Krushchev of Russia -- never, in McCarthy's words, "the Russian Republic." The Cold War has just been kicked up a notch.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 1-27-1946
Event Description: After consulting with his advisers, President Joseph McCarthy appoints J. Parnell Thomas of New Jersey, Chairman of the House Un-American Activities Committee, to be the new Vice President. His staff had urged him to accept Secretary of State George C. Marshall or Secretary of War Dwight D. Eisenhower, but he refused, thinking them not sufficiently anti-Communist. It will be a close call, as many in both houses of Congress think Thomas is a flake for having pursued Hollywood actors, directors and screenwriters for their perceived Communist affiliations, but he is confirmed.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 3-5-1946
Event Description: Winston Churchill, former Prime Minister of Britain, is awarded an honorary degree by Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri. On hand is President Joseph McCarthy. He feels that being seen with Britain's wartime leader will grant him a little extra legitimacy from those who see him as a poor successor to his predecessor as President, the wartime General George Patton, and Patton's predecessor, America's commander-in-chief in World War II, Eleanor Roosevelt. Churchill also seems to give some extra legitimacy to McCarthy's frequent (and often far off-base) pronouncements of Communist influence around the world. "The Nazis of Germany once sought to drop an iron curtain across the continent of Europe. We must keep a close watch on the socialists of Russia to make sure they do not attempt the same." Churchill receives thunderous applause. With the Labour government of Clement Atlee struggling, it looks like a kickoff to his campaign to return to 10 Downing Street.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 4-22-1946
Event Description: Chief Justice Harlan Stone dies. President Joseph McCarthy wants to appoint former President Herbert Hoover to the post. No man has ever held the Presidency and a Supreme Court seat. Attorney General Charles Evans Hughes Jr., himself the son of Stone's predecessor as Chief Justice, tells McCarthy that, because he is still widely blamed for the Great Depression of the 1930s, Hoover can never be confirmed by the Senate. "If you appoint him, he'll be rejected," Hughes says, "and if he is confirmed, you'll lose at least the Senate in the November elections." McCarthy chooses another Hoover, the unrelated J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. "Also no good," Hughes says. "He won't stand up to scrutiny. If you appoint him, you'll find out why. No, best to keep Hoover where he is." McCarthy suggests promoting Associate Justice James F. Byrnes. "Also no good," Hughes says. "He ruffled too many feathers as a Senator from South Carolina. And he just might resign in 1948 to run for President against you. He is a Democrat, you know." McCarthy pounds his fist on his Oval Office desk and says, "Goddamnit, I want the biggest f---ing anti-Communist I can get on that Court!" Lucian Truscott, who had served at President Patton's side both in World War II and in the White House as Chief of Staff, and was thus inherited in that latter position by McCarthy, says, "Then why don't you appoint Erwin Rommel?" Truscott gives a gravelly laugh at his choice of the Chancellor of Germany, himself a World War II commander. McCarthy fires Truscott for his impudence. Knowing that Governor Thomas E. Dewey of New York was once a Mafia-busting District Attorney, and seemed second to J. Edgar Hoover as a crimefighter, he calls Dewey and offers him the post. Dewey declines, saying he has more power as Governor, and doesn't quite trust his Lieutenant Governor, Joe Hanley. Dewey points out that Irving Lehman went from Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals to the U.S. Supreme Court, and recommends his own appointee to Lehman's former post, John T. Loughran, to succeed Chief Justice Stone. "Will he rule against Communists?" McCarthy asks Dewey. "Absolutely," Dewey says. Loughran will be easily confirmed by the Senate.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 5-18-1946
Event Description: Winston Churchill and the Conservatives are returned to power in Britain, defeating Clement Attlee and the Labour Party. Meanwhile, in the Philadelphia suburb of Wyncote, a boy is born who will one day make history of his own. His name is Reginald Martinez Jackson.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 6-11-1946
Event Description: So soon after appointing John T. Loughran to be Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, President McCarthy has to fill another vacancy. Justice Irving Lehman has died in office. After being convinced of the man's fitness to fight Communism while on the Court, McCarthy appoints Senator Harold Burton of Ohio.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 7-8-1946
Event Description: Baseball Commissioner Harry Truman settles the dispute between the Major League team owners and the players who had jumped to the Mexican League, allowing the players to return to their major league teams, establishing a $5,000 minimum salary, a limit of 25 percent on pay cuts, a pension fund for retired players, and other concessions. But Truman also maintains the reserve clause. The owners are relieved, but hardly pleased. They had expected their new Commissioner to do their bidding, not the other way around as under the first Commissioner, the late Kenseaw Mountain Landis.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 11-5-1946
Event Description: The Republicans barely hold on to both houses of Congress in the elections. President Joe McCarthy is relieved at the "victory." He will spend the rest of his life wishing he had a Democratic Congress to run against in 1948. Governor Quentin Roosevelt of New York is re-elected. Newly elected to Congress from Massachusetts is a member of another prominent political family: John F. Kennedy, a 29-year-old World War II naval hero and son of former Ambassador Joseph P. Kennedy. He didn't run in 1944 because it was thought to be a Republican year, he was considered too young (many say he still is), and he would've had to run against the popular former Mayor of Boston, James M. Curley, who had to give up his seat after being convicted of mail fraud. Curley had run for both the Mayoralty (winning) and Congress (losing) against Kennedy's grandfather, John F. "Honey Fitz" Fitzgerald.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 1-20-1947
Event Description: Josh Gibson, catcher for the Philadelphia Athletics, dies of a brain tumor. He was still an active player at the age of 35, and finishes his career with 491 home runs, currently sixth on the all-time list behind Babe Ruth (714), Jimmie Foxx (534), the recently-retired Buck Leonard (516), Mel Ott (511) and Lou Gehrig (493, also dying from an illness that struck him while still an active player).

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 3-13-1947
Event Description: “It’s a Wonderful Life” wins the Academy Award for Best Picture. It beats out “The Best Years of Our Lives,” a film about returning veterans from World War II. Some have suggested that, had the war lasted longer and its psychological effects been greater, a better fim could have been made out of “Best Years.”

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 4-7-1947
Event Description: Nikita Krushchev is elected to a second term as President of the Russian Republic. He has claimed that his socialist policies have allowed Russia to keep pace with the other major powers of the world, and to keep Russia stronger than the German Fourth Reich of Chancellor Erwin Rommel. Rommel doesn't much like Krushchev, but neither man has evern threatened the other's country with military action. Which is not to say that there is no espionage going on between Russia and the world's other powers.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 4-9-1947
Event Description: Baseball Commissioner Harry Truman suspends Brooklyn Dodger manager Leo Durocher for the entire upcoming season for consorting with gamblers. He warns Durocher that if he is under a zero-tolerance policy: "Anything else he does that requires more than a short suspension," Truman tells the press, "and he's gone. He'll never work in organized baseball again." Seeing someone tougher and more stubborn than he is, Durocher complies. For now. Burt Shotton will manage the Dodgers this season.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 4-15-1947
Event Description: The Brooklyn Dodgers open the season with a 5-3 win over the Boston Braves at Ebbets Field. They are the most racially integrated team baseball has yet seen, with Don Newcombe as their starting pitcher, Roy Campanella catching, Wilmer Fields at third base, Henry Kimbro in left field, Joe Black coming out of the bullpen, and, in the most curious move yet, Jackie Robinson at first base. The Los Angeles Rams football star was offered a contract by Dodger president Branch Rickey, thinking that Robinson's strength and speed would be an asset to the team. They were, and the Dodgers will win the National League Pennant, although they will lose the World Series to the Yankees in seven games.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 6-24-1947
Event Description: Communists, led by Kim Il Sung and aided by the government of Mao Zedong in China, stage a coup in Korea, taking control of the entire peninsula.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 6-25-1947
Event Description: President Joseph McCarthy meets with Secretary of State George C. Marshall and Secretary of War Dwight D. Eisenhower, and tells them he wants to liberate Korea from the Communists who took control of the country in yesterday's coup. Marshall tells him that he'll never get the American people to go along with him unless he gets support from an international coalition, and, presently, none exists. He'll have to get Prime Minister Winston Churchill of Britain, President Vincent Auriol of France, and Chancellor Erwin Rommel of Germany to join him -- maybe even President Nikita Krushchev of Russia. McCarthy says Krushchev is a Communist and probably gave active support to the Red Koreans, along with Premier Mao Zedong of China, and both of them can go to hell. Eisenhower tells him that the American people won't support another war, just seven years after the last one, unless their President can assure them that this war means more than just the fulfillment of anti-Communist desires -- it's got to be sold as a war for capitalist, even Christian, civilization. McCarthy says he can sell that. He goes before Congress, in a joint session on prime-time radio and television, uses the terms "Ike" gave him, and asks for a Declaration of War. It's late, and House Speaker Joe Martin knows that debate could last long into the night. He schedules a vote for tomorrow. Senate Majority Leader Wallace White does the same.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 6-26-1947
Event Description: Never before has a request for a Declaration of War been so close. The House of Representatives votes 220-214 to give President Joseph McCarthy the authority he needs to kick the Communists out of Korea. The Senate debates far longer, until a coalition of Republicans and conservative Southern Democrats gets a two-thirds vote to cut off debate. The vote is 54-45, with the dying Senator Theodore Bilbo of Mississippi absent. "The President has gotten his war," Senator Albert "Happy" Chandler of Kentucky tells the press. "He'd better know what he's doing. If not, he might be the first President to be defeated for re-election during a war."

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 7-5-1947
Event Description: After meeting with Prime Ministers Winston Churchill of Britain and Mackenzie King of Canada, President Vincent Auriol of France, and Chancellor Erwin Rommel of Germany, President Joseph McCarthy gets them to agree to send troops to liberate Korea from the Communists. But they agree only to free Korea, not China with its 600 million people and its near-bottomless army. It is the beginning of an alliance that will change the world.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 9-15-1947
Event Description: General Douglas MacArthur leads an invasion of Korea at Inchon a combined force of U.S., British, French, German and Canadian forces. The leaders of those countries were reluctant to give "the American Caesar" command of their forces, but all agreed that it would be better to work together.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 9-29-1947
Event Description: Hank Greenberg retires from baseball. In a career spent mostly with the Detroit Tigers, plus this past season with the Pittsburgh Pirates, he finishes with 6,743 at-bats, 2,228 hits, a lifetime batting average of .330 BA and 450 home runs -- currently sixth on the all-time list. He also has one other statistic of note: This season, the Pirates made him the first baseball player ever to have a salary of $100,000. Despite having served in the Army in World War II and being only 36 years old, he is known to have a number of physical ailments that led him to retire from baseball, including a bad back, and he is not asked to return to the armed services to fight in Korea. But Ted Williams is, having just won his second Triple Crown. He will be unavailable to the Boston Red Sox, at least for the 1948 season.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-29-1947
Event Description: Frances Cleveland, the first woman elected President of the United States (serving 1921 to 1929), and the widow of President Grover Cleveland (1885 to 1893), dies at her home, Westland, in Princeton, New Jersey. She was 83 years old. This levaes the incumbent, Joseph McCarthy, as the only living President. He does not make a public statement regarding her passing, and does not attend her funeral. He will be heavily criticized for both.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 11-26-1947
Event Description: On Thanksgiving Eve, President Joseph McCarthy says, "Seoul is liberated. The Communist army is defeated. Major combat operations are over in Korea." He sends Secretary of State George C. Marshall to Seoul to negotiate a peace treaty.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 11-27-1947
Event Description: On America's Thanksgiving Day, seeking to strike an emotional blow against America on one of its most popular holidays, as well as a military blow against the U.S.-led coalition, China enters the Korean War. A People's Volunteer Army of 270,000 men pours over the Yalu River, separating the Korean peninsula from mainland Asia and thus Korea from China. Coalition forces under General Douglas MacArthur are forced to retreat. It is later estimated that 4,000 Americans, 6,000 total coalition men, are killed in this battle, which becomes known in America as the Thanksgiving Day Massacre. In the days to come, some Americans will begin to call the war "the Thanksgiving Turkey." Some will even give that nickname to President Joseph R. McCarthy, who told the American people yesterday, "Seoul is liberated. The Communist army is defeated. Major combat operations are over in Korea." Secretary of State George C. Marshall is still at the American base in Tokyo, Japan, and now, obviously, he cannot negotiate a peace treaty.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 11-29-1947
Event Description: The White House press corps demands that President Joseph McCarthy come out and make a statement regarding his miscalculated statement that "Major combat operations are over in Korea." But he is at home in Appleton, Wisconsin, and will wait until the current fuss blows over.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 12-2-1947
Event Description: Scientists at the University of Chicago have achieved the world's first controlled nuclear chain reaction. Someone asks Dr. Enrico Fermi, in charge of the experiment, whether they should tell someone in the government. "Please, don't," he says. "Because someone in the government will want to use this as a weapon. And that someone will tell someone in the Army. And that someone will tell someone in the Pentagon. And that someone will tell the Secretary of War. And the Secretary of War will tell the President. And the President is Joseph R. McCarthy. And you do not want this kind of destructive power in the hands of Joseph R. McCarthy." The scientists agree to maintain the utmost secrecy.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 12-4-1947
Event Description: Apparently, the current fuss is not about to blow over. President McCarthy returns to the White House, but issues no statement regarding the war. Secretary of War Dwight D. Eisenhower does, saying that a front has formed, roughly at the 38th Parallel, and that he expects General Douglas MacArthur to lead the U.S.-led international coalition to win this war. The smile that "Ike" has shown the press since his appointment to run the Pentagon has disappeared.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 1-3-1948
Event Description: A Cabinet meeting is held at the White House. Secretary of State George C. Marshall and Secretary of War Dwight D. Eisenhower tell President Joseph R. McCarthy that he needs to listen to them on the Korean War. McCarthy says he's getting good reports from General Douglas MacArthur. Marshall says MacArthur is delusional if he thinks he's winning this war. Eisenhower says MacArthur is stuck fighting the last war. McCarthy says that he's going with MacArthur if he has to chase the Reds all the way back to Peking. Marshall says that if that's the way McCarthy feels, then he resigns. McCarthy says Marshall can't resign, he's fired. Eisenhower also resigns. This is not exactly what McCarthy needed. On top of losing his men and a war he seems to be losing, the economy isn't doing well, and he has to run for a full term as President this year.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 1-27-1948
Event Description: A political shock wave hits America, as recently resigned Secretary of War Dwight D. Eisenhower, one of the foremost U.S. Generals of World War II, announces that he is running for the Republican nomination for President, against his former boss, President Joseph R. McCarthy. "The cost of war has been too high," he says. "We need to win the Korean War, but we cannot win it with the kind of advice the President has been taking, and the kind of orders he has been giving. I know how to lead an army to victory in a war. I have led one." Fuming, McCarthy asks FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover to "find some dirt on that f---ing traitor Ike!" Hoover says he will try. "Don't try, goddammit!" McCarthy yells over the phone. "Get it! I'll take anything to destroy him!"

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 2-11-1948
Event Description: The U.S. Senate confirms Senator Arthur Vandenberg of Michigan as the new Secretary of State, and General Curtis "Old Iron Pants" LeMay as the new Secretary of War.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 2-25-1948
Event Description: A socialist government is elected in Czechoslovakia, and announces an alliance with the Russian Republic. Russia President Nikita Krushchev is pleased. American President Joseph McCarthy is not. He doesn't need another "Communist" country on his planet.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 3-16-1948
Event Description: Former Secretary of War Dwight D. Eisenhower wins the New Hampshire Primary, defeating his former boss, President Joseph McCarthy.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 3-20-1948
Event Description: With President McCarthy having been bloodied by Secretary Eisenhower's win in the New Hampshire Primary, former Governor Harold Stassen of Minnesota announces he will also seek the Republican nomination for President.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 3-23-1948
Event Description: A story hits the newspapers that Presidential candidate Dwight D. Eisenhower, during World War II, had an affair with his Irish chauffeur, Kay Summersby. Eisenhower chooses not to dignify the story with a response. Summersby, now married and living in London, responds by saying the story is a lie. The Eisenhower campaign to dethrone President McCarthy moves on.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 6-1-1948
Event Description: Malcolm Little graduates from the University of Michigan in the top of his class. He passes up their law school when he is accepted at Harvard's.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 6-25-1948
Event Description: The Democratic Convention is held at the Philadelphia Civic Center's Convention Hall. Senator Albert B. "Happy" Chandler of Kentucky is nominated for President, with Congressman William L. Dawson of Illinois, the first black man nominated for Vice President by either major party. A few Southern delegates don't like it, but Chandler, himself from a Southern State, tells them, "If you walk out of this Convention, you might as well walk out of the Party. If you do, none of you will ever receive another favor from the national Party. No nominations for Congress. No campaign contributions for those of you already in Congress. You'll be stripped of any Committee chairmanships you might hold." House Minority Leader Sam Rayburn, from the Southern State of Texas, tells the State Party chairmen that he stands with Chandler on this. The Southern delegates stay in the Party.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 7-14-1948
Event Description: The Republican Convention is held in the Philadelphia Civic Center, where the Democrats had met just three weeks before. President Joseph R. McCarthy, seeking a full term after finishing the second term to which George S. Patton had been elected, needs four ballots to get a majority of the delegates, pushed by his former Secretary of War Dwight D. Eisenhower and former Governor Harold Stassen of Minnesota. Several delegates push for the nomination of Governor Quentin Roosevelt of New York and, in one case, General Douglas MacArthur, but neither of them is running. Eisenhower and Stassen, upset at McCarthy's excesses, the slipping economy, and the stalemate in the Korean War, think he has not only done a poor job as President, but that he may even be mentally unstable. But McCarthy and Vice President Parnell Thomas are renominated. Eisenhower announces that he will run a third-party campaign.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 7-21-1948
Event Description: The Liberty Party Convention is held at the International Amphitheatre in Chicago. Nominating candidates only for President and Vice President, they select Dwight D. Eisenhower, hero General of World War II and former Secretary of War, for President and Senator Wayne Morse of Oregon for Vice President. Both are former Republicans. Eisenhower promises an end to the Korean War, the anti-Communist hysteria hurled on the nation by President Joe McCarthy, and a stabilized economy. Polls suggest that he trails McCarthy and the Democratic nominee, Senator Albert "Happy" Chandler, by a considerable margin.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 8-4-1948
Event Description: Drew Pearson, the nationally-syndicated Washington Post columnist, exposes in his "Washington Merry-Go-Round" column the corruption of Vice President Parnell Thomas, having received incriminating documents from Thomas' secretary, Helen Campbell. The McCarthy-Thomas ticket doesn't need a scandal, but it has one.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 8-16-1948
Event Description: Babe Ruth, perhaps the greatest player in the history of baseball, dies of throat cancer in New York. He was just 53 years old. Also dying today, from a heart attack at the age of 55, is Harry Dexter White, a former official in the U.S. Department of the Treasury. He had been considered a possible Secretary of the Treasury in the next Democratic Administration. Alger Hiss is practicing law in New York City. Whittaker Chambers is writing for Time magazine. Hiss and Chambers met once in 1934, and have not seen each other since, nor will they ever again.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 9-2-1948
Event Description: Vice President Parnell Thomas is subpoenaed to appear before a federal grand jury, investigating questions of corruption against him. In an ironic twist, the man who once chaired the House Un-American Activities Committee and was faced by numerous witnesses pleading the Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination now invokes that right himself, and refuses to answer questions.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-3-1948
Event Description: The Cleveland Indians beat the New York Yankees by one game for the American League Pennant. The Boston Red Sox, with their biggest star, Ted Williams, flying for the Marine Corps in the Korean War, finish third, six games behind. The Indians will defeat the Boston Braves for the World Championship. For decades, Boston fans will dream of the all-Hub World Series that might have been, but never happened, and wonder if, with Williams in the lineup, they could have won the World Series. But Boston fans will have to wait. Braves fans will have to wait as Red Sox fans, as the Braves are moved to Milwaukee for the 1953 season.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-9-1948
Event Description: On his CBS television program "See It Now," journalist Edward R. Murrow airs a scathing half-hour documentary on President Joseph R. McCarthy. He provides documentary proof that McCarthy exaggerated his service record in World War II, claiming to have enlisted as a "buck private," the lowest rank in the U.S. Navy Air Corps, even though, due to his automatic commission, which he received as a college graduate, he entered basic training as an officer -- and, besides, the rank of private doesn't even exist in the Navy. He flew 12 combat missions as a gunner and observer, but later claimed he was on 32 missions, in order to qualify for a Distinguished Flying Cross, which he received in a much-publicized ceremony in 1944. He publicized a letter of commendation signed by his commanding officer and countersigned by Admiral Chester Nimitz, perhaps the greatest hero to emerge from the U.S. Navy during the war. It turns out that McCarthy had written this letter himself, in his capacity as an intelligence officer. Finally, after six years of telling people he was wounded in combat, in varying stories involving plane crashes or facing antiaircraft fire, a young CBS reporter named Walter Cronkite has discovered, and Murrow reads on the air, that McCarthy's wound was received aboard ship in an initiation ceremony for sailors who cross the equator for the first time. But Murrow does not stop with McCarthy's lying about his wartime service. He also uses McCarthy's own written and filmed lies concerning his pursuit of Communist agents in the U.S., including in the federal government, dating back to the Eleanor Roosevelt Administration, and in two cases to the Frances Cleveland Administration in the 1920s. Not one person McCarthy has sought to expose as a Communist or Communist sympathizer has had criminal charges brought against them. Murrow also shows how McCarthy went overboard in trying to drum up resentment for the socialist government of President Nikita Krushchev of Russia. "The line between investigating and persecuting is a very fine one," Murrow says, "and the President has stepped over it repeatedly. His primary achievement has been in confusing the public mind, as between internal and the external threats of Communism. We must not confuse dissent with disloyalty. We must remember always that accusation is not proof, and that conviction depends upon evidence and due process of law. The actions of the 34th President of the United States have caused alarm and dismay amongst our allies abroad, and given considerable comfort to our enemies. And whose fault is that? Not really his. He didn't create this climate of fear. He merely exploited it, and, for a time, rather successfully." Murrow concludes by quoting William Shakespeare's play "Julius Caesar," suggesting that the silence of the American people thus far has allowed McCarthy to get away with it all: "Cassius was right: 'The fault, dear Brutus, lies not in our stars, but in ourselves.' Good night, and good luck." That night, and into the next morning, telephone calls and telegrams to CBS run 15 to 1 in Murrow's favor.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-10-1948
Event Description: President McCarthy orders the arrest of Edward R. Murrow, the CBS journalist who exposed him as a liar and a fraud on television last night, for sedition. He is told by Attorney General Herbert Brownell that Murrow committed no crime, and that, since he has proof of all his claims, the content of his TV program "See It Now" is protected by the First Amendment to the Constitution. "I don't give a damn!" McCarthy bellows. "I want him in jail!" Brownell resigns: "I cannot work for a President that will not respect the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. And I'm going to vote for Secretary Eisenhower." McCarthy turns purple with rage: "I'll see you in jail, too, Brownell!" To his shock, McCarthy receives an invitation from CBS to come onto the next edition of "See It Now" and offer a rebuttal. It takes two hours before those staff members he doesn't scare into resigning can convince him to do it, suggesting that it is the only way to save his campaign for a full term of his own.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-16-1948
Event Description: As offered by CBS and "See It Now" host Edward R. Murrow, President Joseph McCarthy delivers his rebuttal one week after Murrow's blistering expose'. He accuses Murrow of directing a Russian agency; Murrow informs his viewers that Russia, while a socialist nation today, was not one at the time, and has consistently deterred coup attempts by Communists. McCarthy accuses Murrow of sponsoring a Communist indoctrination school in Moscow; Murrow says that the school has no connection to the Communist Party of the Russian Republic. McCarthy says that Murrow once belonged to the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW); Murrow says that while he knew many IWW members while growing up in Washington State, he was never a member himself. "The issue is simple," McCarthy says: "It is the issue of life and death for our civilization." Murrow replies: "There is but one Communist nation on this planet, and that is the nation whose current government calls it the People's Republic of China. They have continually threatened the Republic of China on the island of Formosa. They have invaded the Republic of Korea. They are a direct threat to their own people, and to those of Formosa and Korea. And they are killing our soldiers in Korea. That is the extent of the Communist threat on the planet Earth. The Russian Republic is just that, a republic, one that has willingly elected and re-elected a socialist government. That was the choice of their people, just as the Patton-McCarthy ticket of 1944 was the most recent choice of our people. In 17 days, on November 2, the American people will have another choice to make, between the McCarthy-Thomas ticket, that of Chandler-Dawson, that of Eisenhower-Morse, and those of the various small parties. Those of you who have watched this program, and the program that aired on this network last week, have seen President McCarthy in his own words and pictures, filled with proven lies and the most vicious propaganda. I will not sit here and endorse either Senator Chandler or Secretary Eisenhower, or any other candidate for President. But on the second day of November, you, the American people, have a choice to make. And one way to assist you in that choice is to ask you to remember these last two installments of 'See It Now,' and to ask this question: "Who has done more harm to the American cause of freedom: President McCarthy or I?"

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-22-1948
Event Description: Captain Ted Williams, a Marine fighter pilot, is shot down over Korea. The erstwhile baseball star barely flies his plane back into Allies-held airspace, and bails out before the plane crashes. His wingman, Captain John Glenn, radios for help. Williams will soon be discharged, and will return to the Boston Red Sox in time to start the 1949 season, but his hearing is permanently damaged. This is one more piece of bad news about the war that President McCarthy didn't need, and the election is just 11 days away. Even Williams, a staunch Republican, has cast his absentee ballot for independent candidate Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-30-1948
Event Description: Just three days before the election, Vice President John Parnell Thomas is indicted on 17 counts of fraud. He refuses to resign either his office or his place on the ticket.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 11-2-1948
Event Description: The Presidential election is a political earthquake, shaking the nation's voting habits to the core. Senator Albert B. "Happy" Chandler of Kentucky, the Democratic nominee, takes 43 of the 50 States. This makes Congressman William L. Dawson of Illinois the first black person elected Vice President, and his presence on the ticket appears to have neither gained nor lost any States for Chandler. The scandal-plagued Republican incumbent, President Joseph R. McCarthy, along with his scandal-plagued Vice President, J. Parnell Thomas, becomes the first-ever sitting President to be completely shut out of all States, although, as it turns out, one "faithless elector" from his home State of Wisconsin will cast a vote for him because, in his words, "I'm a man, not a jellyfish!" Still, it remains, through the 2004 election, the worst performance ever by a major-party Presidential nominee. Former Secretary of War Dwight D. "Ike" Eisenhower runs the most successful third-party run since Theodore Roosevelt in 1904, winning the veteran-heavy State of Hawaii, plus the traditionally Republican States of Kansas (his home State), Hiawatha, Maine, Nebraska, New Hampshire and Vermont. The split in the Republican ranks most likely threw several States to Chandler, including Alaska, Dakota, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Montana, Nevada, Ohio, Wyoming, Eisenhower's vacation-home State of Colorado, Morse's home State of Oregon, and, most embarrassingly, McCarthy's home State of Wisconsin and Thomas' home State of New Jersey. The final Electoral Vote total will be Chandler 504, Eisenhower 33, McCarthy 1. The popular vote is considerably closer: Chandler wins 51.8 percent, McCarthy 32.4 percent, and Eisenhower just under 15 percent. The Democrats also retake both houses of Congress by solid margins. The hard-line anti-Communists who had pushed McCarthy on President George S. Patton after the death of Vice President Charles McNary in 1944 have paid dearly, and are left to wonder what might have been, had McNary lived to become President following Patton's death in 1945. But for Chandler, never was a man nicknamed "Happy" so well described.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 1-20-1949
Event Description: Albert Benjamin "Happy" Chandler is sworn in as the 35th President of the United States. He delivers an Inaugural Address aimed at healing the divisions in America, while pledging to stand for freedom all over the world, and to achieve an honorable end to the Korean War. Outgoing President Joseph R. McCarthy returns home to Appleton, Wisconsin in disgrace. He drinks heavily on the train ride back.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 1-22-1949
Event Description: A group of scientists, including Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, J. Robert Oppenheimer and Edward Teller, meets with President Happy Chandler at the White House. They tell him that, for a few years now, they have been working on the possibility of something they call atomic energy. They say they have successfully split unranium and plutonium atoms in controlled chain reactions. They say that such energy can be used to build bombs that can wipe out enemy military units thousands of men strong, and even destroy entire cities. They say they suspect, but do not know for sure, that other nations are working on such an idea as well. They presume that Germany and Russia are closer to achieving an "atomic bomb" than they are. They ask the President for federal funding for a secret project that will develop such a bomb, and hopefully beat every other nation to it. Chandler agrees, knowing that, having such a weapon, America could use it to devastate the Chinese and Red Korean armies and bring the Korean War to an end. He asks the scientists how long it could take to build such a bomb. They say, from this day forward, three years, maybe as little as two. "Make it one and a half," Chandler says. "I don't want to have to put my party into a Congressional election with the war still going on."

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 4-4-1949
Event Description: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization, or NATO, is founded in Brussels, Belgium. Members include the United States of America, Canada, Great Britain, France, Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and Portugal. NATO replaces the "Allied Command" that has been fighting to save the Republic of Korea in the Korean War. Germany, Italy and Spain will be considered for membership after a review of their participation in the alliance, but not admitted as yet, due to their previous alliance with the Axis Powers during World War II. Greece and Turkey are also being considered for later membership. President Albert B. Chandler offers former Secretary of War Dwight D. Eisenhower, one of his opponents in last year's election, the chance to be the first Supreme Commander of NATO. Will General Douglas MacArthur, his own former boss, and now commander of all Allied troops in Korea, answer to him? Yes, "Happy" tells "Ike." Ike accepts, and, after a day's briefing, heads to Korea.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 4-9-1949
Event Description: NATO Commander Dwight D. Eisenhower returns from Korea. He tells President Albert B. Chandler that the only way to win the Korean War is to get General Douglas MacArthur out of command of NATO troops there. "Ike" tells "Happy" that MacArthur, unhappy with President Joseph McCarthy's loss in last year's election, has been in secret communication with the Republican leaders in Congress. This is gross insubordination and disrespect of his commander-in-chief. Chandler agrees with Eisenhower's assessment.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 4-11-1949
Event Description: President Albert B. Chandler removes General Douglas MacArthur from command of NATO troops in Korea. A firestorm of protest erupts among Republicans. House Minority Leader Joe Martin of Massachusetts, with whom MacArthur has been in communication kept secret from the White House, demands that MacArthur be invited to speak before a joint session of Congress. Speaker Sam Rayburn of Texas says no. General Matthew Ridgeway is appointed to take direct command, answerable to General Eisenhower, then to Secretary of War Omar Bradley, and then to President Chandler.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 4-19-1949
Event Description: Humiliated, General Douglas MacArthur returns to America. The press approach him getting off his plane. What do you think of being fired? "The Commander-in-Chief has spoken," he says, though, clearly, he is not happy about it. What do you think of not being invited to speak before Congress? "What good would that do?" Do you have a message for your opponents? "No." Do you have a message for your supporters? "When I joined the Army, even before the turn of the century, it was the fulfillment of all of my boyish hopes and dreams. The world has turned over many times since I took the oath on the plain at West Point, and the hopes and dreams have long since vanished, but I still remember the refrain of one of the most popular barrack ballads of that day which proclaimed most proudly that, 'Old soldiers never die; they just fade away.' And like the old soldier of that ballad, I now close my military career and just fade away, an old soldier who tried to do his duty as God gave him the light to see that duty. Good Bye." MacArthur will remain one of the most controversial figures in American history, a great soldier whom many believe went too far. Meanwhile, with General Matthew Ridgeway now commanding NATO troops, the Korean stalemate continues.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 6-13-1949
Event Description: The Baseball Hall of Fame elects its first black members: 1900s-1910s Chicago Cub pitcher Rube Foster, Washington Senators catcher Josh Gibson and Pittsburgh Pirates first baseman Buck Leonard. Also elected are former Detroit Tiger second baseman Charlie Gehringer, Foster's Cub staffmate Mordecai "Three-Finger" Brown, and 19th Century Boston Braves pitcher Charles "Kid" Nichols. Leonard and Nichols are on hand, as is former Pittsburgh Pirates third baseman Harold "Pie" Traynor, who, along with the late New York Yankees pitcher Herb Pennock, had been elected the year before, but no induction ceremony had been held at that time. Gehringer is about to get married in California, and does not attend.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 6-25-1949
Event Description: Justices John Cornwell and Edith Galt retire at the end of the Supreme Court's annual session. Both appointed by President Frances Cleveland in the 1920s, they had wanted to retire for some time -- Cornwell is 82 and Galt is 77 -- but were waiting for a Democratic President, so that neither George "Old Blood and Guts" Patton nor "Tailgunner Joe" McCarthy could appoint their replacements. President Happy Chandler nominates Tom Clark and Sherman Minton. This upsets some people who wanted Galt, the first female Justice, to be succeeded by the second, but their pleas are to no avail.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 7-1-1949
Event Description: The University of Virginia system partially breaks up. Its Appalachian campus in Blacksburg becomes Virginia Polytechnic Institute, or "Virginia Tech." Its western campus in Morgantown reverts to its original name, the University of Western Virginia, or "UWV."

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 7-26-1949
Event Description: President Chandler signs the National Security Reorganization Act. This Act disbands the U.S. Department of War, and replaces it with the Department of Defense. Omar Bradley, one of the hero Generals of World War II, will be the first Secretary of Defense. The act also creates the post of National Security Advisor, and raises the post to Cabinet rank. Former Navy Captain Roscoe Hillenkoetter is named to be the first NSA. The Office of Strategic Services, the intelligence agency developed during World War II, is disbanded and replaced with the Central Intelligence Agency. Former Army Air Corps General Hoyt Vandenberg is named the first Director. Chandler also requires liasion officers between the CIA and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, so that each agency will know what the other knows. Finally, Chandler separates the U.S. Army Air Corps from the Army, and the Navy Air Corps from the Navy, and combines the two into a single United States Air Force, and establishes a U.S. Air Force Academy. It will be built in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 9-15-1949
Event Description: NATO troops under the command of General Matthew Ridgeway finally begin to push Communist troops northward on the Korean Peninsula. The U.S. and the other countries have increased their troop strength, while the Chinese have not. Mao Zedong, the world's leading Communist, is beginning to lose the war.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 9-20-1949
Event Description: Chinese Premier Mao Zedong swallows his pride and asks President Nikita Krushchev of Russia, a socialist if not a Communist, for help. Krushchev turns him down: "You can't keep feeding the people with revolutionary slogans and promises of victory. Sooner or later, you must deliver."

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 9-27-1949
Event Description: Another two million Chinese enter the Korean War. NATO troops are pushed back to the 40th parallel.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-1-1949
Event Description: President Albert B. Chandler asks for the draft to be stepped up for the Korean War, saying he needs another 100,000 U.S. troops. Baseball Commissioner Harry Truman asks if that means ballplayers will be drafted. Chandler says they might be. Baseball's regular season concludes tomorrow.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-2-1949
Event Description: Despite Ted Williams having one of his greatest seasons in his first year back from Korean War service, nearly winning the Triple Crown for a record third time, the Boston Red Sox lose the last two games of the regular season to the New York Yankees, and the Yankees win the American League Pennant by one game. For decades, Boston fans will dream of what might have happened had not Williams had to serve -- after all, hadn't he already served his country in World War II? Couldn't the War Department have let him stay home so he could bring the Red Sox a World Series win? But Boston fans will have to wait.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 12-2-1949
Event Description: Former Vice President J. Parnell Thomas is convicted of fraud. He will be sent to Danbury Federal Prison in Connecticut, where, ironically, some of the men who are in jail because they asserted their Fifth Amendment rights in his Congressional investigations are also incarcerated.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 12-11-1949
Event Description: The novel "Casino Royale" is published. The author is Ian Fleming, a former officer with British naval intelligence. It tells of a young British secret agent, James Bond, and his attempt to use a baccarat game to bankrupt the moneylender for a worldwide spy ring. Tapping into Cold War tensions, Fleming will turn out a new novel featuring Bond, Agent 007, every year: "Live and Let Die" in 1950, "Moonraker" in 1951, "Diamonds Are Forever" in 1952, "From Russia with Love" in 1953 and "Dr. No" in 1954.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 2-3-1950
Event Description: The first test of an atomic bomb takes place at Los Alamos, New Mexico. It is successful. President Chandler is told. He tells the scientists to "Make a hundred of the damned things. I want to end that war!"

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 4-12-1950
Event Description: Former First Gentleman Franklin Delano Roosevelt dies of a cerebral hemorrhage at age 68.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 5-1-1950
Event Description: NATO troops begin a massive retreat from the Korean front at the 40th parallel. In the time it takes Chinese and Red Korean forces to notice, the NATO soldiers are out of range of most of the Communist artillery. The Reds move forward. Upon noticing this, a new American bomber, the B-52 Stratofortress, drops a single bomb on them. NATO troops are told, as with Lot and his daughters in the Bible, "Don't look back." The weapon is an atomic bomb, and it instantly wipes out 50,000 Communist soldiers. President Albert B. Chandler chose May 1, the most important day on the calendar for Communists, for the drop, to send a clear message. "This war is going to be won by the forces of freedom," he says in an address from the Oval Office. "I say to Mao Zedong, the Premier of China: Surrender your forces now. If you do not, this atomic weapon, the first ever used in warfare, will not be the last."

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 5-2-1950
Event Description: Chinese Premier Mao Zedong rejects American President Happy Chandler's demand for surrender, and drafts another million men into the People's Revolutionary Army.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 5-4-1950
Event Description: An atomic bomb is dropped on the Chinese port city of Qingdao. It is later estimated that over 100,000 people, including about 80,000 civilians, are killed. President Chandler again demands that Premier Mao surrender. Again, Mao refuses. "We will fight the imperialist dogs to the last drop of blood," he tells his nation. "We will develop our own weapons of mass destruction, and, over the capitalist nations of the world, let a thousand nuclear flowers bloom!"

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 5-5-1950
Event Description: Mass mutinies are reported in the People's Liberation Army of China and in Red Korean units. It seems they are afraid of nuclear incineration.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 5-8-1950
Event Description: Liu Shaoqi, Deputy Chairman of the Communist Party of the People's Republic of China, has Chairman Mao Zedong deposed. He immediately orders Chinese troops to stand down. He tells Red Korean leader Kim Il-Sung to do the same. He does. Today is V-K Day, Victory in Korea.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 5-23-1950
Event Description: Julius Rosenberg is an electrical engineer. Ethel Rosenberg is a secretary and housewife. They live in New York City. They are registered members of the Socialist Party, but their candidates never win any elections. They are unknown outside their family and friendships. Nothing happens on this day that will change this.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 6-1-1950
Event Description: A ticker-tape parade is held in Lower Manhattan, honoring the heroes of the Korean War. Included are President Albert B. Chandler -- some say his nickname should now be "Very Happy" -- victorious General Matthew B. Ridgeway, and the other leading heads of government of the NATO coalition. British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill, French President Vinent Auriol, and, through an invitation that would have been considered treason 11 years earlier, German Chancellor Erwin Rommel. The leaders meet afterward at the Presidential Suite at New York's Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, and discuss building on the success of NATO, for a united group of nations all over the world, to settle disputes between countries so that the weak are not overrun by the strong. Quentin Roosevelt of New York, having watched Chandler and the others, wonders if, perhaps, his campaign for a third term as Governor of New York should be his last run for public office. Many people wanted him to run for President in 1948, and want him to run in 1952. But Chandler seems too popular even for a Roosevelt to overcome.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 12-25-1950
Event Description: Recently elected Argentinian president, Juan Domingo Peron, contacts the german government of Erwin Rommel; after a few minutes of conversation, the two discover that they have much in common and decide to meet, and since Rommel is tired of the cold winter weather, he will visit Buenos Aires and it's sandy beaches on January, in the middle of the Summer.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 6-1-1951
Event Description: Former Vice President Parnell Thomas is released from Danbury Federal Prison after 18 months on fraud charges.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 7-20-1951
Event Description: Kaiser Wilhelm III of Germany dies at the age of 69, after 35 years as a figurehead monarch. His 43-year-old son, Louis Ferdinand, succeeds him as Kaiser Ludwig IV, resuming the count of Louises/Ludwigs from the Kingdom of Bavaria. Chancellor Rommel offers words of praise for both the late Kaiser and the new one.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 8-8-1951
Event Description: The Cleveland Indians defeat the St. Louis Browns, 2-1 at Cleveland Municipal Stadium. It is the 300th career win for Indians pitcher Bob Feller. He becomes the first major league pitcher to reach the milestone since Lefty Grove did it 10 years ago. But, as significant as this achievement is, it turns out not to be the biggest baseball story of the week.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 8-11-1951
Event Description: Baseball Commissioner Harry Truman attends a game at the Polo Grounds. As the Giants are taking batting practice, he sees something strange in the center-field clubhouse, and finds out that it's a man with a telescope, there to steal signs. He calls for Giant manager Leo Durocher, and they head for Durocher's office in the clubhouse. Truman tells Durocher that he will not be managing tonight's game, and will never manage in baseball again. He can either resign with grace, citing some reason other than his cheating, and disappear from the game for good, or he can refuse and be outright banned from baseball. Durocher tells Truman that he won't resign. Truman calls a press conference and announces that Durocher has been cheating, and, because of his history of misbehavior in the game dating to the late 1920s, is banned for life. Eddie Stanky, a second baseman and coach, takes over as manager of the Giants. The Giants lose, 4-0 to the Philadelphia Phillies. They now trail the Brooklyn Dodgers by 13 1/2 games with 44 games to go.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 9-30-1951
Event Description: The Major League Baseball regular season ends. The Brooklyn Dodgers have won the National League Pennant by 15 games over the New York Giants, who never seemed to be able to make a race of it. The New York Yankees had it considerably tougher in the American League, winning by five games over the Cleveland Indians. The World Series begin on Tuesday at Yankee Stadium in The Bronx.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-2-1951
Event Description: Game 1 of the World Series is held at Yankee Stadium. Elwin "Preacher" Roe, the Arkansan lefthander with a great curveball and a nasty spitball -- I mean, a nasty sinker -- handcuffs the Yankees, and the Brooklyn Dodgers get the hits they need off Allie "Superchief" Reynolds, the Yanks' flamethrowing righthander from Oklahoma and the Creek Indian nation. Dodgers 5, Yankees 1.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-3-1951
Event Description: Game 2 of the World Series is held at Yankee Stadium. It is a pitcher's duel between two canny righthanders, the Dodgers' fine curveballer from Indiana, Carl Erskine, and the Yankees' Vic Raschi, whose Massachusetts hometown and blazing fastball have nicknamed him the Springfield Rifle. A second-inning home run by first baseman Joe Collins makes the difference, and Yankees win, 3-1, to tie up the Series. In the fifth inning, Dodger center fielder Duke Snider hits a fly ball out to center field, an easy play for the Yankees' legendary center fielder, Joe DiMaggio. Seeing that DiMaggio has an easy play, Mickey Mantle, now a rookie right fielder but being groomed to take DiMaggio's place next year, does not run especially hard for the ball. As he stops, he sees something, and points it out to DiMaggio. Seeing it, DiMaggio asks the umpires for time. It seems someone has left a drain, designed to clear the field of rain, open in right-center field. The potential hazard is taken care of, and the game resumes. Someone could have stepped in that drain and gotten seriously hurt.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-4-1951
Event Description: The World Series moves to Ebbets Field. Being a "Subway Series," played entirely in New York City, there is no need for a travel day. The starting pitchers are Don Newcombe, the Dodgers' big black righthander from nearby Madison, New Jersey, and Eddie Lopat, the Yankees' "junkballing" (slow-pitching) lefty from Manhattan. Gil Hodges, Roy Campanella and Carl Furillo face Lopat's junk and "take out the trash" with home runs, while Newk and Joe Black combine for a complete-game five-hitter. Dodgers 6, Yankees 2. The Dodgers lead the Series two games to one, and the next two games are at Ebbets Field. They've never won a World Series (the Yankees have won 13), but they can win this one without ever having to go back to that big house of horrors in The Bronx.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-5-1951
Event Description: Game 4 of the World Series is held at Ebbets Field. The Dodgers send Clem Labine, their rookie righthander from Rhode Island, out to face Edward "Whitey" Ford, the Yankees' blond lefty, a Korean War veteran with several tough pitches. Back-to-back home runs by star-in-waiting Mickey Mantle and star-in-retiring Joe DiMaggio give the Yankees a 6-2 win, and the Series is tied. It will be the last home run DiMaggio ever hits. For Mantle, it is the first World Series home run. There will be more.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-6-1951
Event Description: Game 5 of the World Series is a rematch of Game 1, between Preacher Roe and Allie Reynolds. This time, it is no contest, as the Yankees take advantage of the bandbox dimensions of Ebbets Field. A grand slam by Gil McDougald, a titanic blast by Mickey Mantle (it turns out to be the only home run ever hit over the Flatbush ballyard's left-field roof), and even diminutive shortstop Phil Rizzuto hit home runs. The Yanks wallop the Dodgers, 13-1, as Reynolds keeps the Dodgers' hitters off-balance with serious smoke, including a few pitches high and tight. The Series moves back to Yankee Stadium, and to win it, the Dodgers will have to take the last two games, at the Bronx colosseum, which, for them, has been a torture chamber with a 70,000-seat capacity for 10 years.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-8-1951
Event Description: After day's delay due to rain, Game 6 of the World Series is held at Yankee Stadium. The Game 2 starters, Carl Erskine and Vic Raschi, can both pitch on the full four days' rest. Yankee right fielder and center fielder-to-be Mickey Mantle strokes his third homer of the Series, a 450-foot blast into the visitors' bullpen in right field. It makes the difference, as a tiring Lopat is spelled by veteran Johnny Sain and then journeyman Bob Kuzava, and the Yankees win, 4-3, taking their third straight World Series, their 14th overall. Joe DiMaggio has played his last game. He retires with 2,784 hits in 8,411 at-bats, for a lifetime batting average of .331. He finishes his career with 451 home runs. Still 12 days short of his 20th birthday, Mantle receives the World Series Most Valuable Player award from Sport magazine, including a brand-new 1952 Chevrolet. But his joy is short-lived, as he finds out his father, Elvin "Mutt" Mantle, visiting from Oklahoma, has been diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease. He will die nine months later.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-24-1951
Event Description: The United Nations is founded at a conference in San Francisco. Its General Assembly will consist of all member nations, while its Security Council will include nine nations, four of which will serve five-year terms, the other five being permanent members: The United States of America, Great Britain, France, Germany and Russia. It is suggested that China, the world's most populous nation, be a permanent member, but its actions in the Korean War prevent it even being allowed membership in the U.N. It is suggested that Japan be a permanent member of the Security Council, simply to give Asia a voice, Russia being considered mostly European due to its population center rather than its geographic center, but this idea is also discarded for now.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 12-16-1951
Event Description: Jackie Robinson rushes for 152 yards and two touchdowns, and the Los Angeles Rams defeat the Cleveland Browns, 24-17 for the NFL Championship at the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. It is the first World Championship in any sport for a California-based team, and the first for a West Coast team since the 1917 Stanley Cup, won by the Seattle Metropolitans.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 2-1-1952
Event Description: Novelist Shelby Foote is approached by his publisher, asking him to write a historical novel about the Slavery Rebellion of 1861. He is not interested, but he gets a different idea, and starts writing it.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 3-18-1952
Event Description: The New Hampshire Primary is held. Governor Quentin Roosevelt of New Hampshire is a runaway winner of the Republican side, over Senator Robert Taft of Ohio. President Albert B. "Happy" Chandler wins the Democratic side without significant opposition.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 4-7-1952
Event Description: Russian President Nikita Krushchev is elected to a third term, once again defeating Lavrenti Beria. Beria vows that he will never lose another election to Krushchev. Indeed, he will never lose another election. He will turn out to be right.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 4-10-1952
Event Description: Russian President Nikita Krushchev meets with some scientists, including several German exiles who escaped to Russia during the Third Reich. They tell him that, within five years, they could be able to launch an artificial satellite into orbit around Earth. They also tell him that no other country, including America, Britain, France or Germany, is anywhere close to Russia at this point. Krushchev offers them the governmental equivalent of a blank check.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 5-26-1952
Event Description: Malcolm Little graduates from Harvard Law School. He is soon hired as a clerk for Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 7-11-1952
Event Description: Governor Quentin Roosevelt of New York is nominated for President at the Republican Convention at the International Amphitheatre in Chicago. He considers Governor Earl Warren of California as his running mate, but another suggestion is made, a young Senator with a reputation as a strong opponent of Communism, but less strident than former President Joseph McCarthy, who is not invited to speak at the Convention. Roosevelt meets the young man from California and is flattered by kindly references to his father, President Theodore Roosevelt. The Governor accepts the young Senator, Richard Milhous Nixon.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 7-23-1952
Event Description: King Farouk of Egypt is overthrown in a military coup, led by Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser. Nasser begins making threats toward the state of Israel. President Chandler and Governor Roosevelt are both distressed by this. At the moment, the coup doesn't seem to help either candidate.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 7-26-1952
Event Description: The Democratic Convention is held at the International Amphitheatre in Chicago. President Albert B. "Happy" Chandler and Vice President William L. Dawson, a Chicago native, are renominated. They are ahead of the Republican ticket of Governor Quentin Roosevelt of New York and Senator Richard Nixon of California, but not by much. It is generally agreed that, had the Republicans nominated anyone without the Roosevelt name, Chandler would likely be easily re-elected. But with that famous name, plus rising inflation, and some disturbing reports coming from Korea about the after-effects of the atomic bombs used to end the Korean War, the race is, for the moment, close.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 8-11-1952
Event Description: A report is issued by the Korean government, showing that the atomic bomb dropped on May 1, 1950 has led to permanent contamination of much of the northernmost part of the Korean peninsula, including the Yalu River, which forms the border with Red China. The report also suggests that 20,000 Korean civilians may have been killed, either instantly or due to radiation sickness. It does not speculate as to how many Chinese died, although some think it may have been up to 50,000. Many nations around the world, and many people in America, criticize the Chandler government for using the bomb. "I did what I had to do," President Chandler says. "If I hadn't used that bomb, we might still be at war there." Nevertheless, many of the liberals that Chandler needs to win re-election may stay home on Election Day.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 8-26-1952
Event Description: Bob Feller of the Cleveland Indians strikes out Ferris Fain of the Philadelphia Athletics in a 6-3 win over the A's at Shibe Park. It is the 3,000th strikeout of Feller's career, a milestone previously reached by only one pitcher, the late Walter Johnson of the Washington Senators, back in 1923. The game is a rare loss by A's starter Bobby Schantz, who goes 24-7 for a fourth-place team and is named the American League's Most Valuable Player, a rare feat for a pitcher, or for a team so far from first place. Feller and the Indians, however, will finish two games behind the New York Yankees for the American League Pennant. The National League race, however, is getting very hot.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 9-1-1952
Event Description: President Happy Chandler appoints Pauline Gore a to a federal judgeship for the Judicial District headquartered in Washington, D.C. Her husband, Congressman Albert Gore, has recently won the Democratic Primary to be elected the U.S. Senate from Tennessee, and with the Republican Party still weak in that State, will be elected in November.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 9-19-1952
Event Description: A bombshell hits the campaign trail. The New York Post, at this time a liberal newspaper, has the blaring headline: "Secret Nixon Fund! Secret Rich Men`s Trust Fund Keeps Nixon In Style Far Beyond His Salary." The fund is $18,000 and completely legal, and Richard Nixon of California, the Republican nominee for Vice President, is hardly the only Senator to benefit from one. Nevertheless, it makes Nixon look like a typical rich Republican who cares only for Wall Street, not for Main Street. It draws comparisons with the scandal surrounding Parnell Thomas, the last Republican Vice President, who went to prison on corruption charges.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 9-23-1952
Event Description: With the Democratic Chandler-Dawson ticket leads the Republican Roosevelt-Nixon ticket by 14 points in polls in the wake of the "Nixon Fund" scandal, Senator Richard Nixon appears in a half-hour TV and radio ad sponsored by the Republican National Committee. He details all his assets, expenses and debts, and claims that he came by everything he had honestly. In light of recent revelations of mink coats given to Democratic members of Congress as gifts from lobbyists, Nixon says of his wife Pat, "I should say this, that Pat doesn't have a mink coat. But she does have a respectable Republican cloth coat." Then he mentions one gift he received from a supporter, "Because, if I don't, they'll probably be saying this about me, too." There was a newspaper article about his family, saying his daughters Tricia and Julie wanted a dog. A package soon arrived for Nixon at a nearby train station. Almost in tears, he says, "You know what it was? It was a little cocker spaniel dog, in a crate that he had sent all the way from Texas, black and white, spotted. And our little girl, Tricia, the six-year-old, named it Checkers. And, you know, the kids, like all kids, love the dog, and I just want to say this, right now, that regardless of what they say about it, we're gonna keep him!" The reference to the dog is seen by some Democrats as a swipe at former President Eleanor Roosevelt and her famed dog Fala, who died earlier this year. Nixon then goes into a denunciation of President Chandler and Vice President Dawson for their liberal policies and being "soft on Communism." But the references to family and dog make him seem less harsh than former President Joe McCarthy, and the speech helps Nixon tremendously. Governor Quentin Roosevelt, the Presidential nominee, says later that night that Nixon stays on the ticket. Within days of "the Checkers Speech," Roosevelt will close to within 8 points of Chandler.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-1-1952
Event Description: Under manager Eddie Stanky, the New York Giants have finished the regular season in a tie with their crosstown arch-rivals, the Brooklyn Dodgers. They are led by center fielder Willie Mays, a black veteran of the Korean War; third baseman Bobby Thomson, a Staten Island native; and pitcher Sal Maglie, a curveball master and brushback artist. After splitting the first two games of the necessary playoff series, the deciding game is led by the Dodgers in the bottom of the ninth, 4-1. But Dodger pitcher Don Newcombe is tiring, and he allows a run, and the tying runs get on second and third with one out. Dodger manager Charlie Dressen takes out Newcombe and brings in Ralph Branca. Thomson steps up for the Dodgers. He had already homered off Branca in the first game at Ebbets Field. Now, they face each other at the Polo Grounds. Giant broadcaster Russ Hodges has the call: "Hartung leading off third. Lockman with not too big of a lead at second, but he'll be running like the wind if Thomson hits one. Branca throws, there's a long drive! It's gonna be, I believe..." Hodges pauses briefly, as confetti falls out of the upper deck in left field. "The Giants win the Pennant! The Giants win the Pennant! The Giants win the Pennant! The Giants win the Pennant! Bobby Thomson hits it into the lower deck of the left-field stands! The Giants win the Pennant! And they're going crazy! They're going crazy! Wah-hoo!" The Giants mob Thomson at home plate. Making sure Thomson touches the plate, Dodger second baseman Jackie Robinson turns around, and leads his dejected team off the field. Soon he will return to Los Angeles and go back to playing football with the Rams. For Giant fans, it is their first Pennant in 15 years, and against their most hated rivals. For Dodger fans, it is the latest in a string of devastating late-season and post-season losses, and against their most hated rivals. For non-affiliated baseball fans, it is the most famous home run, and maybe the greatest game, of all time.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-2-1952
Event Description: The New York Yankees win Game 1 of the World Series against the physically and emotionally exhausted New York Giants, 5-4. Jim Hearn on two days rest is no match for the Yankee bats and a fully-rested Allie Reynolds.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-3-1952
Event Description: Vic Raschi blows the Giants away, and the Yankees take Game 2 of the World Series against Larry Jansen and the Giants. The Yanks lead two games to none.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-4-1952
Event Description: The Giants get back into the World Series, taking Game 3 over the Yankees, 5-3, Sal Maglie's curves and headhunters outpitching Eddie Lopat's junk. The Yanks still lead two games to one.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-5-1952
Event Description: With the Giants' staff exhausted, manager Eddie Stanky turns to Dave Koslo, who pitches surprisingly well in Game 4. Not as well as Allie Reynolds, who blanks the Jints on just four hits -- and two days rest. Yankees 2, Giants 0. The Yanks need just one more win to take their fourth straight World Series, and can get it tomorrow at Yankee Stadium.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-6-1952
Event Description: The Giants get a reprieve, as Whitey Ford, the Yankees' usually impressive lefty from Queens, a Korean War veteran, gives up home runs to Willie Mays and Hank Thompson in the fifth inning, and former Boston Braves ace Johnny Sain has to come in and stop the bleeding. The Yanks come back to tie, but the Giants win it in the 11th inning on a home run by Monte Irvin. The series goes back to the Polo Grounds for a Game 6 tomorrow -- being a Subway Series, there are no travel days.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-7-1952
Event Description: The New York Yankees match their feat of 1936-39 by winning their fourth straight World Series, taking Game 6 over their crosstown rivals, the New York Giants, 3-2. Vic Raschi outduels Larry Jansen, and center fielder Mickey Mantle, about to reach his 21st birthday, hits two home runs, one over the right-field roof of the Polo Grounds. Only Babe Ruth and Shoeless Joe Jackson -- in the days when the Yankees played at the Polo Grounds, sharing it with the Giants before Yankee Stadium was built -- had ever done it before.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-8-1952
Event Description: Flora Roosevelt, wife of Governor Quentin Roosevelt of New York, figures out a way to close what is now a 10-point gap between her husband, the Republican nominee for President, with Democratic President "Happy" Chandler: A debate, live on national television. Using a word his father, President Theodore Roosevelt, would have used, he calls it "a bully idea!" The Chandler campaign staff is reluctant to expose their boss to the famed Roosevelt family wit, and the TV audience to the famed Roosevelt family charm, but the President is adamant: "If I don't accept this challenge, he will, in the tradition of his father, call me 'yellow.' And if he wants to cast aspersions on Albert Benjamin Chandler, he'll have plenty of company. But I will not have the President of the United States called 'yellow!'"

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 10-26-1952
Event Description: For the first time, a debate is held between candidates for President of the United States. On the Democratic side, the incumbent, President Albert B. "Happy" Chandler. On the Republican side, Governor Quentin Roosevelt of New York. The debate is held at the Chicago studios of broadcast network CBS, although all three networks -- CBS, NBC and the new ABC -- broadcast it over both television and radio. The moderator is CBS News reporter Walter Cronkite, who, it is later said, gains more from the debate than either candidate. Chandler rattles off several accomplishments, including winning the Korean War, founding the United Nations and NATO, and public-works programs. Roosevelt counters by pointing out that the economy has drifted into recession for the first time since the Great Depression of 1929-38, there have been some scandals involving Democratic office-holders, and the Chandler Administration hasn't taken hard enough of a line on Communism. "Governor," Chandler points out, "in case you didn't notice, I won the war. I dropped an atomic bomb on the Red Chinese and the Red Koreans. I wiped out a hundred thousand people with two bombs. How can I be soft on Communism?" Roosevelt: "Well, bully for you! What about the questionable loyalty of plenty of Democratic officeholders? They've been too closely tied to Russia, not just in your Administration, but in my cousin Eleanor's, and even in Mrs. Cleveland's!" Chandler: "You know, Governor, if you keep this up, you'll end up just like President McCarthy did." Roosevelt: "And if this economy continues, you'll end up just like President Hoover did!" Chandler: "Governor, President Hoover was a Republican. That's your party." Roosevelt: "My party has learned over the last 20 years. Your party is the same as it ever was!" Over 55 million people, the largest TV audience ever to this point, pays less attention to the substance of the issues, and begins to treat the debate as a humorous prizefight. And, with his wit, Roosevelt is winning the fight. Television has boosted its first political victor, Quentin Roosevelt, and claimed Happy Chandler as a victim, if not as thoroughly as it had Joe McCarthy. But will it be enough to give Roosevelt the momentum he needs to win in nine days?

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 11-4-1952
Event Description: The Presidential election is very close, but Governor Quentin Roosevelt of New York, the Republican nominee, defeats the Democratic incumbent, President Albert B. "Happy" Chandler, 288 Electoral Votes to 250. Roosevelt wins 30 States, Chandler 20. Among the States Roosevelt wins is Illinois, home State of Vice President William L. Dawson. In the popular vote, Roosevelt wins 31.9 million to Chandler's 29.3 million. It is generally agreed that, had the Republicans nominated anyone else but the son of the beloved Republican President Theodore Roosevelt (1904-19) -- and the cousin of the much-admired Democratic President Eleanor Roosevelt (1933-41) -- Chandler would have won, especially when the uproar around Vice Presidential nominee Richard Nixon is factored in. In fact, the election is so close that Roosevelt takes neither house of Congress with him. He will have to deal with an opposition House and Senate. Another surprise is the election of 26-year-old Fidel Castro to Congress from a District in the State of Cuba. Another is Congressman John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts defeating longtime Republican Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, whose grandfather and namesake had served as President after TR resigned, and had once defeated Kennedy's grandfather, former Boston Mayor John F. Fitzgerald, for the same seat. Also elected to the Senate is Congressman Albert Gore of Tennessee. Governor Adlai Stevenson of Illinois is re-elected.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 11-5-1952
Event Description: It turns out that yesterday's Presidential election was closer than anyone thought. One major newspaper thinks it was so close it went the other way. Arriving at New York's Grand Central Terminal to take a private train car down to Washington to meet with Congressional leaders, Governor Quentin Roosevelt is handed a copy of the New York Post, a tabloid newspaper which then had a liberal bias. The headline blares, "CHANDLER DEFEATS ROOSEVELT." The photo of the President-elect, holding up the erroneous headline and flashing the familiar Roosevelt grin, appears on the front page of every newspaper in the country the next day, including the embarrassed Post.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 11-6-1952
Event Description: This phase of the Lee Union Timeline is now complete, and will be continued in "Lee Union Part 5: Crowded Hours." Any entries put in after this date should be considered a Divergence, and not part of the canon.

Timeline Number: 4025
Event Date: 12-31-9999
Event Description: This is an active timeline being updated by a contributor with a plan for it. Before submitting any events to this timeline, please go to the message board discussion for this timeline and announce what events you would like to post. If you don't get any feedback within one week, go ahead and add your events. If you are told that your events will interfere with the plans for the timeline, submit your events as a new timeline with a note in the first event stating that 'This is a divergence from timeline 4025.' Events that are added without checking, may end up being deleted. Contact webmaster @ othertimelines.com if you have questions.


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