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Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-30-1970
Event Description: (Contributor's Note:This is a continuation of Timeline 2309--Ussuri River War Part 4.) UNICEF begins delivering food supplies to North Korea in an attempt to stave off a famine that experts have warned may hit the country within 6-8 months.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-31-1970
Event Description: Public controversy erupts in the US after actress Jane Fonda gives an interview to CBS defending the AMPA;one statement during the interview which particularly sparks outrage is her assertion that "if they truly understood its motives,most people would join the AMPA tomorrow".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-3-1970
Event Description: CIA director Richard Helms is nominated to succeed Robert McNamara as Secretary of Defense.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-6-1970
Event Description: With Hanoi and Saigon having reached agreement on most of the major issues and compromised on the rest,the Vietnam reunification talks begin their final phase.Only one point of contention remains between the two sides:where to locate the reunified country's capital.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-8-1970
Event Description: Acting on an anonymous tip,Indonesian police arrest ex-NKPA general Kim Chol Man at a tourist hotel in Jakarta;General Kim,who fled North Korea just before U.S.-Soviet coalition forces captured Pyongyang,had been hiding out in various cities under an assumed name following his escape and was the last remaining Bangkok war crimes trial defendant not already in custody.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-9-1970
Event Description: Under heavy guard,Kim Chol Man is turned over to UN officials at the Thai embassy in Jakarta and extradited to Thailand to be indicted by the Bangkok war crimes tribunal.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-11-1970
Event Description: Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme,a former associate of Charles Manson,crashes a stolen Ford van loaded with explosives into the Federal Reserve Bank in Denver;the charges detonate immediately on impact,killing 107 and injuring 324 in what at the time is considered the worst terrorist attack in American history.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-14-1970
Event Description: Contradicting the defendants' assertions that the NKPA never tortured or abused civilians during North Korea's war with the U.S.-Soviet coalition,former South Korean defense minister Kim Sung Eun testifies before the Bangkok tribunal that South Korean intelligence sources have confirmed nearly 200 instances of NKPA troops mistreating civilians between March and June of 1968.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-17-1970
Event Description: The American military liaison mission to the Soviet Union transfers its headquarters to Kiev.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-18-1970
Event Description: After over two decades in exile,Chiang Kai-Shek returns to the Chinese mainland;when he arrives in Beijing,the city's main airport is crowded with large numbers of both supporters and opponents,proving that Chiang remains a controversial figure in China even after so many years away.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-20-1970
Event Description: Fulfilling J. Edgar Hoover's earlier prediction,the AMPA collapses once and for all as a series of FBI raids in California,Oregon,Washington,Colorado,and Arizona capture the terrorist group's remaining leadership and break up all but two of its last surviving cells.One of these raids results in the arrest of three of Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme's co-conspirators in the Denver Federal Reserve bombing(a fourth is killed in a shootout with Los Angeles police while attempting to elude capture).

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-22-1970
Event Description: A Hanoi military tribunal convicts Nguyen Duc Tranh of treason against North Vietnam and sentences him to death by hanging.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-25-1970
Event Description: The Soviet military mission to the United States relocates to Fort Hood,Texas.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-26-1970
Event Description: The three surviving co-conspirators in the Denver Federal Reserve bombing are indicted on terrorism and murder charges in a federal court in Phoenix.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-27-1970
Event Description: Nguyen Duc Tranh is hanged in Hanoi;to prevent vengeful ex-prisoners from mutilating his body or supporters of the former Chinese puppet ruler of North Vietnam from making him a martyr,North Vietnamese authorities order that his body be cremated and the ashes disposed of in secret.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-28-1970
Event Description: Convinced that a third Nixon bid for the presidency will be the kiss of death for any GOP hopes of returning to the White House,a group of Midwestern Republicans forms the Draft Ford Committee,a group aimed at convincing Michigan representative Gerald Ford to run for the nomimation in the 1972 elections.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-30-1970
Event Description: In a joint written statement,the chief North and South Vietnamese negotiators at the reunification talks in Saigon announce that the two sides have agreed to locate the country's capital in the ancient imperial city of Hue;the formal reunification agreement is expected to be signed within the next few days.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-2-1970
Event Description: The last U.S.-Soviet coalition ground troops evacuate Romania.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-3-1970
Event Description: North and South Vietnamese delegates meet in Saigon to sign the pact formally reunifying Vietnam more than a quarter-century after it was partitioned;in a reception at the South Vietnamese embassy in London celebrating the reunification accord,new British prime minister Edward Heath says:"This is a welcome and historic moment not only for the people of Vietnam,but for all the world."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-4-1970
Event Description: The chief West German negotiator at the German reunification talks in Berlin is wounded in an assassination attempt by members of an extreme Maoist group calling itself the Red Army for China's Liberation(das Rotarmee für die Befreiung das China).A spokesman for the East German government condemns the attempt as "a blatant act of sabotage against the will of the German people" and vows that the perpretrators will be severely dealt with.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-7-1970
Event Description: The German reunification talks resume in Berlin.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-11-1970
Event Description: Japan's Asahi Shimbun newspaper reports that South Korea may try to open reunification discussions with North Korea as early as June of 1971.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-15-1970
Event Description: Warner Brothers releases The Omega Men,the first major American motion picture inspired by the Ussuri River War.Starring Charlton Heston,Anthony Zerbe,and football star-turned-action hero Jim Brown,the movie depicts the exploits of a fictional US Marine Corps special operations unit;taglines for Omega Men dub its main characters as "freedom's last line of defense".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-20-1970
Event Description: 60,000 Ethiopian soldiers arrive in northeastern China to begin their stint with UNOFORMLC;they will replace NATO forces being called home to West Germany,Belgium,and Denmark.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-22-1970
Event Description: The Senate votes to confirm Richard Helms as new U.S. Secretary of Defense;Helms then resigns as Director of Central Intelligence to take up his new post.Longtime Rand Corporation executive James R. Schlesinger is appointed to succeed Helms as CIA director.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-1-1970
Event Description: In accordance with the October reunification pact,the DMZ between North and South Vietnam is formally abolished.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-3-1970
Event Description: Opening arguments are heard in the Denver Federal Reserve bombing trial.Outside the courtroom,a handful of ex-AMPA demonstrators rally in support of the defendants,but they are outnumbered by a crowd of 1200 counter-demonstrators urging the judge to give the conspirators the death penalty.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-6-1970
Event Description: U.S.-Soviet coalition troops begin evacuating from Yugoslavia.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-10-1970
Event Description: The Draft Ford Committee's efforts to convince Gerald Ford to run for the presidency bear fruit as Ford officially declares his candidacy for the GOP nomination in the 1972 presidential elections.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-14-1970
Event Description: The U.S. Senate passes the Counterintelligence Reform Act,a bill intended to establish a Cabinet-level department whose purpose would be to co-ordinate the operations of America's military and civilian intelligence agencies under the auspices of a single central authority.Presidential anti-terrorism advisor Leon Jaworski,an early and vocal supporter of the bill,urges the House of Representatives to follow the Senate's lead and approve the measure without delay.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-16-1970
Event Description: Having already released most political prisoners from its jails,the Soviet government announces it will immediately begin freeing the rest,with the exception of approximately 200 inmates convicted of pro-Chinese terrorist activities during the Ussuri War.Plans are also underway to close the Siberian labor camps.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-19-1970
Event Description: Israel establishes diplomatic relations with Iran,Morocco,Tunisia,Mauritania, and Lebanon.Negotiations are also underway with Syria,Saudi Arabia,Oman,Bahrain,the United Arab Emirates,Kuwait,and the new government of Algeria.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-23-1970
Event Description: At ceremonies commemorating the third anniversary of the start of the Ussuri River War,the mayors of Belogorsk and San Diego sign a "sister city" pact.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-30-1970
Event Description: After two weeks of intense and sometimes acrimonious debate,the House of Representatives passes the 1970 Counterintelligence Reform Act.President Johnson will sign it into law two days later.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 12-3-1970
Event Description: Making the first papal visit to Russia since the 1917 Communist revolution,Pope Paul VI meets with Russian Catholic and Orthodox worshippers in Moscow.In a speech at Red Square,the pontiff praises the Kosygin government's ambitious programs to expand political and religious freedom in the Soviet Union.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 12-4-1970
Event Description: The CPSU divides into two parties:one,consisting of a minority of hard-liners who still support the practices of the past,is named the People's Marxist Party,while the second,made up of the majority who support Kosygin's reforms,dubs itself the Russian National Social Democratic Alliance(RNSDA).

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 12-8-1970
Event Description: Russia's first national stock exchange opens for business in Kiev.A special anti-fraud branch of the KGB is formed to ensure that investors' interests are fully protected.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 12-14-1970
Event Description: The families of 50 people killed in the Denver Federal Reserve bombing begin circulating a petition demanding that Jane Fonda be barred from working in motion pictures forever."At best,her repeated alibis for the AMPA are insensitive,and at worst they constitute outright treason."declares the petition's main author.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 12-20-1970
Event Description: In an interview on 60 Minutes,US Communist Party general secretary Gus Hall announces that he is dissolving the party effective in six months;even if it hadn't been gravely weakened by the defection of many of its younger members to the AMPA,he feels the time has come for American socialism to re-define its identity to suit the needs of a changing world,and that can only come if the existing CPUSA is dismantled.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-6-1971
Event Description: One-time Gdansk electrician Lech Walesa is sworn in as Poland's first democratically elected prime minister since 1948.In his inaugural address,he pledges to maintain cordial relations with both East and West and to help other eastern European nations as they pursue their own Kosygin-style political and social reforms.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-12-1971
Event Description: A group of US intellectuals,foreign policy experts,social workers,and charity figures meets in Los Angeles to form Oxfam America,an offshoot of the famous Oxford Committee for Famine Relief organized in Britain after World War II.The new charity is being established in an effort to boost UN famine relief efforts in North Korea,which have been hampered of late by unexpected bureaucratic complications within the provisional North Korean government's upper echelons.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-18-1971
Event Description: East and West German diplomats sign a formal reunification agreement in Berlin;the newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung marks the signing on its front page with the jubilant headline "Unser Lange Nationalistiches Alptraum Ist Kaput"("Our Long National Nightmare Is Ended").

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-2-1971
Event Description: A North Korean foreign ministry official tells Asahi Shimbun that his government is in fact considering reunification talks with South Korea but that the two sides are still trying to work out a mutually acceptable date for beginning such negotiations.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-6-1971
Event Description: Sarah Jane Moore,one of Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme's accused co-conspirators in the Denver Federal Reserve bombing,takes the stand in her own defense.This proves a costly mistake:the prosecutor shreds her alibi during cross-exam,inflicting further damage on an already seriously weakened defense case.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-13-1971
Event Description: UN peacekeepers begin their withdrawal from North Korea;that same day,closing arguments are heard in the Bangkok war crimes trial and opening statements are made at the Milan tribunal.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-17-1971
Event Description: The last Australian and New Zealander troops in Hainan Island and southern China begin leaving for home.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-18-1971
Event Description: After five days of deliberations,the Bangkok war crimes tribunal hands down its verdicts;of the 37 Chinese Communist and North Korean defendants being tried,34 including Lin Bao and Kim Chang Pong are convicted of crimes against humanity,and twenty of those will be sentenced to death.Many of the other defendants,like Kim Chol Man,will be given prison terms of 40 years to life.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-19-1971
Event Description: Alexei Kosygin signs an executive order officially abolishing the last traces of the CPSU's long-time ban on religious practice and guaranteeing full religious freedom for all Soviet citizens.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-22-1971
Event Description: New Australian prime minister William McMahon personally welcomes home the last Australian ground troops to leave mainland China.Passing out bottles of Foster's Lager to the soldiers as they disembark from their transports,McMahon exhorts them to "drink those beauties down to the last drop";the troops are more than happy to oblige.As a result,Foster's soon starts billing itself somewhat hyperbolically as "the beer that won the Ussuri War".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-28-1971
Event Description: A crowd of over 200,000 Berliners assemble in enthusiastic celebration as Willy Brandt is sworn in as the first post-reunification chancellor of Germany.Erich Honecker is also sworn in that day as chairman of the new German national legislature,the Bundeskammer.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-1-1971
Event Description: Church bells throughout the Soviet Union joyfully ring out as Kosygin's executive order on religious freedom takes full effect.KGB chairman Yuri Andropov declares that violators of this order will be swiftly and vigorously prosecuted;as a demonstration of the Soviet government's commitment to fulfilling its religious freedom guarantee,Kosygin and Andropov are both formally baptized into the Russian Orthodox Church at a special ceremony in Moscow's St. Basil's Cathedral.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-3-1971
Event Description: Soviet foreign minister Andrei Gromyko arrives in Colorado to witness the first dismantling of a U.S. ICBM base;meanwhile,in Siberia,Vice-President Hubert Humphrey attends a ceremony marking the first closure of a Soviet missile complex.In Washington,Secretary of State Henry Kissinger issues a statement saying,"The final victory in the Cold War has been not that of one nation over another or one ideology over another,but rather of all men of goodwill over those who would seek to foster hatred and division."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-5-1971
Event Description: Harvard Law School graduate and deputy White House anti-terrorism advisor Elliot Richardson is sworn in as the United States' first Secretary of Central Intelligence;Richardson,nominated for the post a month after the 1970 Counterintelligence Reform Act was signed into law,was almost unanimously confirmed by the Senate and is considered a perfect choice for the new post because of his reputation for unshakeable integrity.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-6-1971
Event Description: The new national flag of a reunited Vietnam is unveiled for the first time in a ceremony at the national parliament building in Hue;modeled after the old St.Andrews banner of Scotland,the design consists of a white "X" on a green field and also incorporates a blue sunburst as a symbol of the dawning of a new era of Vietnamese unity.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-7-1971
Event Description: The jury in the Denver Federal Reserve bombing trial begins deliberations.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-8-1971
Event Description: Tibet is formally admitted to the UN;in Washington,economic officials from 17 countries sign a trade agreement with the Tibetan government.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-10-1971
Event Description: In a letter to one of his former comrades from the 497th Tactical Fighter Squadron,George Walker Bush delivers the news that he and Laura Lane Welch are engaged to be married in October;serving as Bush's best man for the ceremony will be a mutual friend of the couple,US Army captain and Operation Last Waltz veteran Tommy Franks.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-12-1971
Event Description: After five days,the jury in the Denver Federal Reserve bombing trial renders its verdict:Sarah Jane Moore and her co-conspirators have been found guilty on all counts.The defendants' attorneys immediately file an appeal.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-16-1971
Event Description: Russia's first independently owned mass-circulation newspaper,Daily Events,prints its debut issue in St.Petersburg.The publishers' ambitions for the fledgling paper are made evident by the fact that editions are published in English,French,German,and Italian for sale to Western tourists visiting St.Petersburg and Moscow.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-18-1971
Event Description: The Duma,Russia's primary national legislature prior to the 1917 October Revolution,is revived by the Kremlin to replace the now-disbanded CPSU Central Committee.Boris Yeltsin is nominated to serve as the new Duma's first chairman.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-19-1971
Event Description: The defendants in the Denver Federal Reserve bombing trial are sentenced to life in prison without parole;the lead defense attorney in the case vows to get their sentences overturned and the case retried.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-20-1971
Event Description: Nixon unveils his full 1972 campaign platform for the first time;seeking to avoid a repeat of the fiasco of the 1968 elections,he makes very little mention of foreign policy,choosing instead to emphasize his economic growth initiatives and his strong anti-crime stance.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-22-1971
Event Description: "Live Aid",the largest outdoor music concert since Woodstock,is held at the Los Angeles Coliseum to raise funds to support famine relief efforts in North Korea.Doors lead singer Jim Morrison,making what will turn out to be his final public appearance,comes out of seclusion to perform most of his old hits;ex-Beatle John Lennon debuts his new single 'Imagine',a song that will eventually be adopted as an anthem of peace movements throughout the world.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-26-1971
Event Description: Hoping to steal some of Nixon's thunder among conservative voters,George Wallace recruits former Air Force general Curtis LeMay to help him form a new far-right wing political party,the American Traditionalist Party;in his first major speech as party chairman,Wallace declares he will put an end to what he calls the "Commie-coddling" foreign policies of the Johnson Administration and defend old-fashioned American values.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-5-1971
Event Description: The Pentagon releases its official final estimate of total worldwide casualties from the Ussuri River War.According to its figures,97,813,526 military personnel have been killed and 65,794,233 wounded,with another 317,456 still missing in action;civilian casualties come to 444,628 dead,278,996 injured,and 87,319 missing.(Losses among anti-Mao guerrilla factions in China,while not precisely known even at this late date,are estimated at close to 1 million dead and wounded.)

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-13-1971
Event Description: Washington Post reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein are awarded the Pulitzer Prize in journalism for their three-part series exposing mismanagement at a Veterans Administration hospital intended to care for disabled American servicement coming home from China and the Balkans.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-18-1971
Event Description: Syria and Israel establish full diplomatic relations.By mutual agreement between the two countries,the Golan Heights,occupied by Israel since 1967,will be returned to Syrian control and fully demilitarized within three years;Tel Aviv and Damascus will also collaborate with Lebanon on anti-terrorism activities and on a highly ambitious construction project to build housing and aqueducts along the Lebanese coast and the Bekaa Valley.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-20-1971
Event Description: The hammer-and-sickle banner of the Communist era disappears as Russia unveils a new two-stripe blue and white national flag with a gold star in its center;the gold star,according to the new flag's designer,is intended to represent the heights of greatness to which Russia has aspired as a nation throughout its long history.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-21-1971
Event Description: Against the advice of his defense team,Nicolae Ceaucescu takes the stand on his own behalf at the Milan war crimes tribunal.His sanity,which had been steadily eroding for weeks,evaporates completely during the cross-exam;a question about his government's treatment of political dissidents during the war sends him into a psychotic rage,and the deposed ex-Romanian dictator has to be physically restrained from attacking the chief prosecutor.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-26-1971
Event Description: The last Japanese ground troops are brought home from China as the Diet reinstates Article 9 of Japan's 1947 constitution.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-3-1971
Event Description: NBC News White House correspondent and University of South Dakota graduate Tom Brokaw receives a Peabody award for his profiles of President Johnson and Vice-President Humphrey during the final days of the Ussuri War.At just 31 years of age,Brokaw is the youngest journalist in television history to be accorded this honor.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-10-1971
Event Description: At the request of the new German government,NATO and Warsaw Pact forces begin dismantling most of their military installations in Germany.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-13-1971
Event Description: In Czechoslovakia's first multi-party national elections in more than thirty years,prominent Prague intellectual and playwright Vaclav Havel wins a five-year term as Czech president,succeeding the soon-to-retire Alexander Dubcek.At a post-election reception in the Czech embassy in Washington,President Johnson lauds the elections as "proof positive that General Secretary Kosygin's reform movement is succeeding wherever it takes hold".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-22-1971
Event Description: The last British troops to depart mainland China return to a hero's welcome in London;in a televised speech from Buckingham Palace,Queen Elizabeth II tells the returning soldiers,"As your grandfathers did in 1914 and your fathers did in 1940,you have defended with valor and distinction everything our nation holds dear,and for this I and the British people are forever grateful."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-31-1971
Event Description: Soviet and Warsaw Pact forces begin withdrawing from Poland.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-2-1971
Event Description: The general secretaries of NATO and the Warsaw Pact meet in Warsaw to discuss details of a proposed pact under which the two alliances would merge into a single pan-European coalition.The new combined organization would be known as the European Union(EU) and have its headquarters in Munich.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-5-1971
Event Description: In Vietnam's first post-reunification national elections,ex-South Vietnamese air force general Nguyen Cao Ky narrowly edges out Pham Van Dong and former South Vietnamese president Nguyen Van Thieu to win a six-year term as prime minister.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-8-1971
Event Description: The Israeli and Syrian governments begin soliciting bids for the Bekaa Valley construction project.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-13-1971
Event Description: Canadian Minister of Justice John Turner announces the surrender of the last remaining RSLBC cell at a press conference in Toronto.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-14-1971
Event Description: Hsu Lizhen,a prominent Shanghai merchant and devout Methodist,forms the Christian Democratic Party of China(CDPC) as an alternative to the Kuomintang.In a statement to the Associated Press,Hsu proclaims himself as a challenger to Chiang Kai-Shek in China's October 1972 national elections and says he hopes to give his fellow Chinese "the full blessings of God".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-17-1971
Event Description: Michel St. Andre is honorably discharged from the Canadian navy with the rank of sub-lieutenant.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-23-1971
Event Description: Concert promoter Don Kirschner reveals that plans are underway for a second "Live Aid" event to be held in New York's Central Park on Thanksgiving weekend.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-25-1971
Event Description: The North Korean foreign ministry issues a statement confirming that it will start reunification negotiations with South Korea by March of 1972.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-5-1971
Event Description: Diplomats from 20 countries sign the SALT II nuclear arms reduction pact in Moscow;this treaty,intended to continue and expand on the warhead reductions called for in the original SALT treaty,also mandates stringent regulations aimed at preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons technology to other countries(particularly Iraq).

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-13-1971
Event Description: American troops begin departing Vietnam for good;most of them will be out of the country by mid-1972,although a garrison force of 25,000 will remain in the country to help the Vietnamese combat Khmer Rouge infiltration along the Vietnam-Cambodia border.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-16-1971
Event Description: New York real estate developer Fred C. Trump,a major player in the Bekaa Valley construction project,meets with Syrian and Lebanese officials to pitch his proposal for a hotel complex which he envisions as being the cornerstone for a stronger tourism industry in Lebanon.Back in the U.S. Trump's son Donald,a recent graduate of Fordham University,begins contacting potential investors in a bid to win their support for the hotel project.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-22-1971
Event Description: The Milan war crimes tribunal delivers its verdict;Slobodan Milosevic,Nicolae Ceaucescu,and 17 other defendants are found guilty on 34 counts of violating the Geneva Convention,20 counts of human rights violations,15 counts of general crimes against humanity,and eight counts of obstruction of justice.The late Radovan Karadzic is posthumously convicted of inciting political and ethnic hatred during the coup that installed the Milosevic regime in power in Yugoslavia.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-4-1971
Event Description: At a meeting in Brussels,NATO's military and diplomatic committees endorse the proposed NATO-Warsaw Pact merger.All that remains is for the Warsaw Pact to give its consent.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-7-1971
Event Description: In Warsaw,the representatives of the Warsaw Pact states approve the proposed NATO-Warsaw Pact merger into the new European Union.The EU's official charter will be drafted and signed within six weeks.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-2-1971
Event Description: Following the example set by the United States and Russia in the SALT pact,Britain and France sign their own nuclear weapons reduction agreement at a ceremony in Paris.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-13-1971
Event Description: The European Union charter is formally ratified in Munich.The pact calls for the establishment of a common European defense force also lays the groundwork for future economic and political unity."Finally,"British prime minister Edward Heath says in a press conference at 10 Downing Street,"the peoples of Europe can move past the tyranny and carnage of the past and into a permanent Enlightenment."Vice-President Edmund Muskie represents the United States at the ratification ceremony,while Duma chief speaker Boris Yeltsin attends on behalf of the Russian Republic.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-15-1971
Event Description: The last German ground troops begin evacuating mainland China.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-22-1971
Event Description: Former civilian defense analyst Daniel Ellsberg publishes The Pentagon Papers,a transcript of personal journals he kept while working as an advisor to President Johnson during the Ussuri War.The book scolds Johnson both for the slowness of his initial response to the Chinese invasion of Siberia and for permitting the growth of what Ellsberg calls "a ridiculous culture of secrecy" surrounding Johnson's handling of pre-war American military operations in Vietnam.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-24-1971
Event Description: New Hampshire's influential Manchester Union-Leader newspaper prints an editorial blasting The Pentagon Papers as "a ridiculous pile of self-serving dreck" and calling Daniel Ellsberg "a pompous clown".Warrior,the official American Traditionalist Party magazine,goes even further,labelling Ellsberg "a filthy evil traitor" and calling for his execution.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-31-1971
Event Description: Preliminary blueprints are drawn up for the proposed Trump Hotel Lebanon.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-3-1971
Event Description: Cuba and the United States formally resume diplomatic relations.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-6-1971
Event Description: George Walker Bush and Laura Lane Welch are married at an elaborate church service in Houston.Among the guests:Joseph "Dracula" Monahan,John Kerry and a number of surviving former crew from the late USS Brumby,Texas governor Preston Smith,and Republican presidential candidate Gerald Ford,on whose behalf Bush's father will be campaigning during the 1972 presidential primaries.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-16-1971
Event Description: People's Marxist Alliance general secretary and onetime Kremlin power-broker Mikhail Suslov blasts Alexei Kosygin as "a traitorous thug" at a party rally in Kiev and urges the Russian people to overthrow him and reinstate hard-line Communist rule.His harangues fall mostly on deaf ears,however;one Kiev journalist,in fact,later privately derides Suslov as "a little would-be Stalin".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-17-1971
Event Description: In the surest sign yet of the Kosygin administration's intent to break away from the past,the Russian premier orders that the body of Vladimir Lenin be removed from its towering mausoleum in Moscow's Red Square and interred in a more modest crypt in Lenin's former hometown of Ulyanovsk;the original tomb will be demolished to make way for a gravesite honoring the memory of the unknown Soviet soldiers of World War II and the Ussuri River War.There are few if any protests over Kosygin's decision,and most of those come from Marxist hard-liners supporting Mikhail Suslov's bid to topple Kosygin.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 12-10-1971
Event Description: The province of East Pakistan secedes from the rest of Pakistan and declares its independence,renaming itself Bangladesh.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 12-16-1971
Event Description: The Soviet Union adopts a new name:effective as of noon Moscow time on January 1st,1972,it will henceforth be known as the Russian Republican Federation.A spokesman for the Kosygin government says that national elections will take place in early October of 1972;while the RNSDA has not yet officially named a candidate for the premier's post,sources in Moscow believe the party will most likely back Mikhail Gorbachev,who both within and outside Russia is considered the most logical successor to Kosygin.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 12-17-1971
Event Description: In an interview for the Atlanta Journal-Constitution,Jimmy Carter rules out any plans to get involved in the 1972 presidential race but hints that he might be interested in challenging for the Democratic nomination in 1976.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 12-20-1971
Event Description: The Cuban government establishes a fund to provide compensation for exiles who were stripped of their property and assets after the Castro regime took power in 1959.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-4-1972
Event Description: The UN's Ussuri Territorial Boundary Arbitration Panel schedules its first formal meeting for April of 1973.The five-man panel will deliberate six months before issuing a verdict on who should have final control over the Ussuri River territories.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-10-1972
Event Description: The citizens of Leningrad vote to readopt their city's old name,St. Petersburg;simultaneously the town of Molotov returns to its former name,Perm.A BBC reporter covering the vote comments:"It is ironic that the Russian people should take a definitive step towards a more democratic future by choosing to embrace icons of the past."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-11-1972
Event Description: The KGB is re-organized into two separate agencies:one,the Central Security Bureau,will assume most of the KGB's former foreign intelligence responsibilities,and the other,the National Justice Service,will act as Russia's primary national domestic police force.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-17-1972
Event Description: Sending a dangerous signal that he intends to continue his militaristic policies,Saddam Hussein appoints longtime personal friend and political ally Tariq Aziz,an outspoken advocate of pre-emptive war against the Cairo Pact and the United States,as Iraq's new ambassador to the UN.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-8-1972
Event Description: The defending NBA champion Milwaukee Bucks face the Russian national men's basketball team in an exhibition game at the MECCA arena.Expected to be easy pickings for the NBA players,the Russians instead prove a serious challenge,dogging the Bucks' heels throughout the entire first half and actually leading them for much of the second before finally losing to Milwaukee in overtime 127-124.As a result of the unexpectedly close game,a number of sports experts begin to suggest the Russian team may have the potential to finally break the United States' 36-year undefeated streak in Olympic basketball.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-15-1972
Event Description: The new United States embassy in Havana officially opens;to mark the occasion,Fidel Castro sends the new US ambassador two cases of his favorite brand of cigars.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-2-1972
Event Description: The last UN peacekeeping troops depart North Korea.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-3-1972
Event Description: Reunification talks between North and South Korea get underway in Seoul.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-7-1972
Event Description: In a strong sign that Richard Nixon may have finally worn out his welcome with Republican voters,Gerald Ford wins the New Hampshire GOP primary with nearly 72% percent of the vote;this,coming on the heels of a previous Ford victory in the Iowa caucus,strengthens Ford's status as the odds-on favorite to win the Republican nomination for the presidency.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-11-1972
Event Description: Groundbreaking ceremonies are held for the Trump Hotel Lebanon;not to be outdone,legendary hotel magnate Conrad Hilton unveils plans to establish his own luxury resort in the Beirut area.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-13-1972
Event Description: Dismissing his New Hampshire primary defeat as "just a minor bump in the road",Nixon tells ABC News anchor Howard K. Smith that what he refers to as "the great silent majority" will ultimately propel him to the Republican nomination,and from there,to the White House.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-16-1972
Event Description: The Trump Hotel Lebanon welcomes its first high-profile American guest as singer Frank Sinatra checks in for a four-day stay;Sinatra,heading for Beirut on the first step of a comeback tour,lauds the luxury resort as "the most swell joint I've stayed at in years...they oughta give a Nobel Prize to the guy that thought of it."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-21-1972
Event Description: Gerald Ford hands Richard Nixon another decisive primary defeat,this time in Illinois;asked if he's thinking about dropping out of the presidential race after so many setbacks,the former Vice-President replies:"I've never quit a fight in my life,and I certainly won't start quitting now.I'm going to stay in this campaign until the very end."On the Democratic side,Hubert Humphrey follows up a win in Iowa and a second-place finish in New Hampshire by beating out South Dakota senator George McGovern and Washington senator Henry M. "Scoop" Jackson.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-22-1972
Event Description: Back in Washington after a four-day summit with Cairo Pact leaders in Jordan,President Johnson says in a press conference at the White House that the last major withdrawals of American and NATO forces from Germany should be complete within 45 days.A modest garrison force,similar to the one stationed along the Vietnam-Cambodia border,will remain on German soil to serve as the cornerstone of what Johnson calls a "rapid deployment unit"(RDU) for future operations in the Persian Gulf.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-3-1972
Event Description: Officials from NASA and the Russian space agency Glavkosmos unveil the world's first permanent space station in a press conference at Cape Canaveral.The future orbital laboratory--nicknamed "Skylab" by the press--will house a rotating crew of six and will serve as a platform for future experiments in space as well as extended manned flights to the Moon and Mars.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-4-1972
Event Description: George Wallace is shot and seriously wounded during an American Traditionalist Party rally in Mobile,Alabama;though paralyzed from the waist down as a result of the assassination attempt,he survives and is back on the campaign trail the next day.The would-be assassin,emotionally disturbed loner and Wisconsin native Arthur Bremer,is himself wounded in a shootout with police just hours after the attack and placed under arrest.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-5-1972
Event Description: George McGovern announces his withdrawal from the 1972 US presidential race at a press conference in his campaign headquarters.McGovern,whose early momentum in the primaries had slowed to a crawl as Hubert Humphrey maintained his lead in the polls and Maine senator Edmund Muskie emerged as the true main Democrat rival to Humphrey's bid for a second term in the White House,made the decision to pull out of the campaign after a lackluster fourth-place finish in the South Carolina primary.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-25-1972
Event Description: Edmund Muskie,once considered to have little hope of successfully challenging Hubert Humphrey for the Democratic nomination in the 1972 presidential elections,pulls off a huge upset in the Massachusetts primary,winning by nearly 50,000 votes over Humphrey.This surprise win indicates Muskie may have more support among the Democratic rank and file than previously thought.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-8-1972
Event Description: Making good on his pledge to continue his White House bid as an independent candidate if he could not secure the GOP nomination,Richard Nixon announces he is withdrawing from the Republican presidential race and accepting an invitation from the National Reform Party to run as their candidate.The Reform Party,a group comprised mainly of Nixon supporters who have defected from the GOP and the Democrats,is campaigning on a platform of small government and an American foreign policy that favors economic rather than political or military means to spread U.S. ideals abroad.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-16-1972
Event Description: After a month's rest following his return from Tibet,Mordecai Guran is promoted to captain and appointed chief deputy to the military attache at the Israeli embassy in Tehran.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-15-1972
Event Description: Richard Nixon's already diminished political fortunes start to decline even further after Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein get hold of a lead from an anonymous source hinting that Nixon's campaign committee may be resorting to extremely underhanded tactics in a last-ditch effort to capture the '72 presidential race for him.The source,who goes by the alias "Deep Throat",alleges that among other dirty tricks the Nixon campaign has planted electronic listening devices in the Democratic National Committee's headquarters in Washington's Watergate hotel.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-16-1972
Event Description: Woodward and Bernstein's story concerning the anonymous tip from "Deep Throat" hits the Washington Post's front page and is almost immediately picked up by several other major newspapers around the U.S.Almost immediately Nixon comes under fire for ordering,or at least permitting,the illegal activities his campaign committee is alleged to have perpetrated on his behalf;Gerald Ford,speaking from his campaign headquarters in Michigan,blasts the Nixon campaign team as being "either complete idiots or the worst bunch of liars and crooks that ever walked the earth".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-19-1972
Event Description: In his first public comments on Woodward and Bernstein's Watergate story,Richard Nixon tells NBC News anchor John Chancellor:"When a man asks the American people to entrust him with the office of the presidency,they have a right to know whether or not that man is a crook....and I can assure you,I'm not a crook.The allegations Mr.Woodward and Mr.Bernstein,and this 'Deep Throat' character,have levelled against me are completely false."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-20-1972
Event Description: In a speech at a Ford campaign rally in Atlanta,Louisiana senator Thomas Hale Boggs lashes out at Nixon,calling him "a scoundrel who doesn't even deserve to be elected county dog-catcher,let alone our next president".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-21-1972
Event Description: Carl Bernstein phones Nixon campaign senior staffer H.R. "Bob" Haldeman to ask him to confirm or deny a follow-up story on Deep Throat's allegations regarding the Watergate bugging plot.As Bernstein begins to read the first paragraph of his story,Haldeman lets out a loud,dismayed "Jeeeee-SUS!";halfway through Bernstein's second paragraph,Haldeman groans "Jeeeee-SUS!" again and abruptly hangs up.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-24-1972
Event Description: Nixon campaign committee chairman John Mitchell abruptly resigns,citing health problems;however,an anonymous source close to Mitchell tells the New York Times that Mitchell may have actually been trying to escape the fallout from Woodward and Bernstein's story concerning the suspected bugging of the Democrats' Watergate offices.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-28-1972
Event Description: Vietnamese and Cambodian troops raid a suspected Khmer Rouge base camp on the shores of Sonle Tap Lake;the raid nets 50 prisoners and a great deal of valuable intelligence concerning the whereabouts of Pol Pot,who even now remains at large despite repeated efforts to capture him.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-30-1972
Event Description: Vietnamese and Cambodian special forces capture Pol Pot as he tries to slip across the Cambodian border into Burma;the notorious Khmer Rouge leader and four of his most senior aides are then brought back to Pnomh Penh to await indictment for treason.Pol's arrest spells the beginning of the end for the Maoist guerrilla group.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-3-1972
Event Description: Anti-Nixon protestors in New York,Los Angeles,and Chicago begin making preparations to demonstrate at August's Republican National Convention in Miami Beach.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-6-1972
Event Description: Testifying before the Senate Armed Services Committee,Secretary of Defense Richard Helms recommends that the draft be gradually phased out and the US Army converted into an all-volunteer force over the next few years.An all-volunteer army,he argues,will have stronger morale and thus be more combat-effective in future wars.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-9-1972
Event Description: Seeking to counter the anti-Nixon demonstrators' presence in Miami Beach,a group of Nixon supporters begins preparations for its own rally at the 1972 Republican National Convention.Several of the rally's organizers will later go on to establish the U.S. Reform Party.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-10-1972
Event Description: With the Bekaa Valley construction project well on its way toward completion,the Israeli,Syrian,and Lebanese governments commission an international team of architects to draw up blueprints for what will eventually become the world's largest desalinization plant.This plant,expected to process between 500,000 and 1.3 million gallons of seawater per day once it becomes operational,is being built in order to address a fresh-water supply problem that has long troubled all three countries.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-12-1972
Event Description: Hubert Humphrey is nominated on the first ballot at the Democratic National Convention in San Diego;following his acceptance speech Humphrey selects his former main rival for the nomination,Edmund Muskie,as his running mate in the November general elections.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-13-1972
Event Description: The Cambodian government finally wins its three-year struggle against the Khmer Rouge as the guerrilla group's last remaining active cell surrenders near Batdambang.The Khmer Rouge had little other choice;besides being isolated from outside aid,their brutality had alienated them from the very ethnic Chinese on whose behalf they claimed to be fighting.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-19-1972
Event Description: Israel establishes diplomatic relations with Saudi Arabia,Kuwait,Oman,the United Arab Emirates,Qatar,and Bahrain.The Saudi and Israeli governments sign an anti-terrorism pact under which the two countries will share information and resources to combat extremist groups like Yasser Arafat's Fatah and the Kach party recently founded by anti-Arab fanatic Meir Kahane,a vocal opponent of Israel's co-operation with the Cairo Pact.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-21-1972
Event Description: Excited by the interest foreign investors have shown in the Kiev stock exchange,Alexei Kosygin opens additional branches of the exchange in Moscow and Vladivostok and sends Mikhail Gorbachev on a visit to New York City to encourage American companies to market their products for the growing Russian consumer economy.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-4-1972
Event Description: Flight crews begin training at Edwards Air Force Base in California and the Star City camp near Moscow for the first Skylab mission.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-6-1972
Event Description: At ceremonies commemorating the 27th anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima,Japanese prime minister Kakuei Tanaka commends the U.S.-Russian SALT arms control initiatives as "a welcome sign that the superpowers are stepping back once and for all from the abyss of total destruction".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-10-1972
Event Description: Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and Russian foreign minister Andrei Gromyko sign the SALT III treaty in Geneva,which calls for the elimination of ballistic missile submarines over the next 3-5 years.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-12-1972
Event Description: Nixon's personal secretary,Rosemary Woods,is subpoenaed to testify before a federal grand jury on how much she knew about her employer's attempts to bug the Democrats' Watergate offices.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-15-1972
Event Description: Rosemary Woods pleads the Fifth,forcing investigators in the Watergate scandal to summon John Mitchell,H.R. Haldeman,and Nixon campaign legal counsel John Dean.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-20-1972
Event Description: On the eve of the Republican National Convention in Miami Beach,a group of anti-Nixon protestors clashes with a contingent of Nixon supporters outside the California delegation's hotel suite;Miami police arrest a dozen people for disorderly conduct and eight more for assault and battery.H.R. "Bob" Haldeman,Nixon's new campaign manager,denounces the anti-Nixon demonstrators as "nattering nitwits" and "thugs".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-22-1972
Event Description: Amid massive,raucous demonstrations both for and against Richard Nixon,Gerald Ford wins the GOP nomination on the second ballot of the Republican National Convention at Miami Beach.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-23-1972
Event Description: Gerald Ford officially accepts the Republican presidential nomination and selects Ronald Reagan as his number two man on the ticket;Reagan,whose support helped clinch the California,Arizona,and Oregon Republican primaries for Ford,is being tapped for the vice-presidential spot as a means of strengthening the Ford campaign's credibility on defense issues.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-31-1972
Event Description: Saudi intelligence officials advise the Israeli embassy in Riyadh that a group of PLO gunmen is attempting to infiltrate Germany with the objective of mounting an attack on Israel's Olympic contingent at the Summer Games in Munich.The tip is passed on to German security officials via the Israeli embassy in Berlin,and a sting operation is immediately organized to catch the would-be assassins in the act.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-5-1972
Event Description: Israeli,German,and Saudi police agents succeed in thwarting the PLO's attempt to raid the Israeli compound at Munich's Olympic Village.Their success comes at a grim price,however;in a two-hour shootout with the terrorists,two Israeli and three German agents are killed and a Saudi officer is wounded.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-8-1972
Event Description: State funerals are held in Israel and Germany for the police agents who were killed thwarting the PLO attack on the Israeli Olympic compound in Munich;in a press conference at his office in Tel Aviv,Israeli defense minister Moshe Dayan eulogizes the men as "heroes in the war against terrorism and lawlessness."In Riyadh,the Saudi police officer wounded in the gun battle is presented by King Fahd with Saudi Arabia's highest civilian medal.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-12-1972
Event Description: The Russian men's Olympic basketball team pulls off the unthinkable and beats the United States 101-99 in the gold medal match at the Summer Games in Munich,ending 36 years of American domination.The Russian victory is clinched when Doug Collins misses a last-second layup that would have tied the game and sent it into overtime;making the defeat even more painful for the Americans,during the medal ceremony it is learned that the silver medals the US team was to have been awarded have been stolen by person or persons unknown.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-13-1972
Event Description: Conrad Hilton reveals plans to open luxury hotels in Tel Aviv,Damascus, Tehran,and Riyadh;Hilton also meets with the government of the United Arab Emirates to discuss building a resort city near the tiny village of Abu Dhabi.Meanwhile,Fred Trump announces that he will build hotels in Doha,Cairo,Tyre,Haifa,Rabat,and Tunis and immediately begin negotiations with the Algerian government to open new shipbuilding facilities in Annaba.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-1-1972
Event Description: Canadian,Mexican,and US officials meet in Washington to disucss the possibilty of a free trade pact;the proposed North American Free Trade Agreement,or NAFTA,would take effect by 1976 if approved by the legislatures of the countries concerned.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-8-1972
Event Description: Mikhail Gorbachev is elected by an overwhelming margin to succeed Alexei Kosygin as Russian premier;the RNSDA wins more than 85% of the seats in the Duma.Mikhail Suslov,in a concession speech brimming with undertones of defiance,states:"We will not rest until the dreams of Lenin and Stalin are fufilled,and Marxism rules the world."Both official and independent Russian media outlets rebuke Suslov for the veiled bitterness of his remarks,and the People's Marxist Alliance leader also comes under criticism in the foreign press:the Washington Post in particular derides him as "a sour relic of an era thankfully long gone".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-12-1972
Event Description: Chiang Kai-Shek narrowly wins over Hsu Lizhen in mainland China's first democratic postwar presidential elections;however,Hsu's Christian Democratic Party prevails over Chiang's Kuomintang in the balloting for the new National Parliament,winning 221 of its 343 available seats.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-25-1972
Event Description: With the latest Gallup polls showing Gerald Ford just six points behind Hubert Humphrey as the race for the White House nears the home stretch,Lyndon Johnson,whose aggressive campaigning in the South help swing the 1960 election for John F. Kennedy,embarks on a six-state tour of the region to drum up support for Humphrey.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-31-1972
Event Description: The new United States embassy to Vietnam is opened in Hue.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-3-1972
Event Description: After a 30-day recess to give negotiators on both sides time to consult with their respective governments,reunification talks between North and South Korea resume,moving to Inchon for the start of their second round.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-6-1972
Event Description: At an election-eve Humphrey campaign rally in Houston,Lyndon Johnson tells an enthusiastic crowd:"From World War I until today,the Democratic Party has constantly worked to make America a strong force for progress and liberty abroad.Let's work to make sure Hubert Humphrey can continue that proud tradition over the next four years."Johnson's concluding remarks are interrupted several times by joyful chants of "Four more years!Four more years!"

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-7-1972
Event Description: Hubert Humphrey and Edmund Muskie win a narrow triumph in the election of 1972,capturing 24 states and the District of Columbia comparied with 20 states for Gerald Ford and Ronald Reagan.The final margin of victory is even narrower than it appears at first glance;many of the votes that might have helped push Ford and Reagan over the top have gone instead to the Reform Party ticket of Richard Nixon and Maryland governor Spiro T. Agnew.American Traditionalist Party candidate George Wallace finishes dead last,unable to carry even his own home state of Alabama.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-5-1973
Event Description: In his final message to the Russian people,outgoing premier Alexei Kosygin says:"We must move forward to a better tommorow by rejecting the ideas of violence and tyranny, and by working with the global community."Kosygin concludes his speech with the memorable lines:"Tonight in Russia,oppression is dead...long live our new freedom."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-8-1973
Event Description: Mikahil Gorbachev is sworn in at Red Square for his first six-year term as premier of the Russian Republican Federation;in his inaugural address,he pledges to promote a strong economy,fight domestic crime,and work closely with the other major world powers to maintain global peace.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-11-1973
Event Description: Right-wing nationalist Vladimir Zhirnovsky forms the Motherland Solidarity Party,a group dedicated to placing a conservative government in power in the Kremlin.One Moscow journalist,after hearing Zhirnovsky's speech proclaiming the party's ideological platform,calls him "an unstable fanatic almost as rabid as Suslov".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-15-1973
Event Description: In his final address as President,Lyndon Johnson states:"We've done a lot together these last ten years.Tyranny is retreating,and America and our allies are leading the charge for a new dawn of freedom.At home,we are winning in the wars against racism and poverty.So,my fellow Americans,continue to lead that charge, and work for a world where no one will have to die in war again. Goodnight,and God bless America."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-20-1973
Event Description: Hubert Humphrey is sworn in as the 37th President of the United States;in his inaugural address,he declares:"From the minute I first walk into the Oval Office until the minute I leave it for good,I will work tirelessly with the other great nations of the world to help forge a permanent peace."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-22-1973
Event Description: Apollo 18,the first manned Skylab mission,is launched from Cape Canaveral;five hours later,the second mission,Salyut 1,blasts off from the Baikonur Cosmodrome.Once the two ships have docked,their crews will spend the next 3 or 4 months living and working together in orbit.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-28-1973
Event Description: Showing that his domestic aims are just as ambitious as his international ones,President Humphrey signs an executive order establishing a new federal bureau,the Environmental Protection Agency,to combat air,water,and soil pollution in the United States.Moderate New Hampshire Republican Russell Train is nominated as the agency's first director.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-3-1973
Event Description: Fearing that inflation could,in his words,"put a stranglehold on the American economy",President Humphrey meets with Federal Reserve chairman Arthur F. Burns to map out a series of comprehensive measures to stimulate American economic growth and reduce unemployment.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-18-1973
Event Description: The European Astronautics Agency(EAA) is established in Brussels.The organization,setup to help the member states of the European Union more efficently utilize their space exploration assets,has been in the planning stages since the EU was founded but gained particularly strong momentum after France,Germany,and Britain began joint construction of a satellite launch complex in French Guiana.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-21-1973
Event Description: President Humphrey,Premier Gorbachev,British prime minister Edward Heath,and French prime minister Pierre Mesmer meet at Camp David for the start of a three-day summit on economic,environmental,and security issues.This summit marks the first time since the end of World War II that the heads of state from France,the United States,Russia,and Great Britain have met with one another simultaneously.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-5-1973
Event Description: Taiwanese voters approve a special referendum scheduling a vote on Taiwan's future for the spring of 1975.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-9-1973
Event Description: South and North Korean negotiators report that considerable progress has been made during the final phase of the Korean reunification talks;according to the chief of the South Korean delegation,a final reunification pact should be in place by late June or early July.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-10-1973
Event Description: The last American ground troops to withdraw from China arrive in San Francisco to an enthusiastic welcome and a massive parade in their honor.Former President Lyndon Johnson,making what will turn out to be his last public appearance,tells the cheering GIs:"We're gonna throw you fellas the biggest barbecue this side of the Rio Grande before this day's over!"

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-31-1973
Event Description: Voters in mainland China pass their own referendum regarding the question of Taiwan's status.The referendum states that if the people of Taiwan should opt to reunite with the mainland,the new government will welcome them without delay;should they choose to maintain their independence,Beijing will support the government in Taipei.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-2-1973
Event Description: Israeli prime minister Golda Meir extends an invitation to the foreign ministers of Egypt,Lebanon,and Syria to meet with her in Tel Aviv for discussions on a timetable for the establishment of an independent Palestinian state.Egypt's largest newspaper applauds the Meir initiative,calling it "our first glimpse of the road map to final peace."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-7-1973
Event Description: Former President Lyndon Baines Johnson dies at his ranch in Texas from heart failure at the age of 64.President Humphrey orders all flags lowered at half mast for 30 days,and a massive funeral is scheduled for April 12 in Washington.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-8-1973
Event Description: The Ussuri Territorial Boundary Arbitration Panel convenes its inaugural session.A spokesman for the panel tells the London Times that a subsidiary council is being organized to facilitate negotiations between Russia and Japan regarding the Kurile Islands,which were taken over by the USSR at the end of World War II.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-10-1973
Event Description: Chinese president-elect Chiang Kai-Shek's inauguration ceremony is postponed a week at his own request so that he can attend Lyndon Johnson's funeral.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-12-1973
Event Description: Lyndon Johnson is laid to rest at Arlington National Cemetery;in tribute to his work in establishing the U.S.-Soviet coalition,a detachment of Russian marines is included in the honor guard that accompanies his casket to the burial site.His widow,former first lady Claudia "Lady Bird" Johnson,receives more than 70,000 letters of condolence from schoolchildren in Kiev and Moscow.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-17-1973
Event Description: In a Beijing ceremony more modest and somber than originally planned,Chiang Kai-Shek is inaugurated as the first president of post-Communist mainland China.A previously little-known Buddhist sect called Falun Gong blesses Tienanmen Square prior to the swearing-in.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-18-1973
Event Description: In response to Conrad Hilton's proposal to build a luxury hotel in Abu Dhabi,Fred Trump announces plans for a new resort community and tourist center in the Gaza Strip near Gaza City.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-20-1973
Event Description: Groundbreaking ceremonies are held near the Lebanese coastal town of Sayda for the new Mediterranean desalinization plant.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-26-1973
Event Description: CBS airs the pilot episode of M*A*S*H,a dramatic series chronicling the lives and work of surgeons at a front-line Army hospital.Although the series is set during the Korean War,it touches a chord with many people who served in China during the Ussuri War.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-2-1973
Event Description: The Shah of Iran orders the disbanding of the dreaded SAVAK secret police.This deals a huge blow to Ayatollah Khomeini's faltering efforts to overthrow the Pahlavi regime;much of Khomeini's prestige was based on his stern opposition to SAVAK's activities and policies.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-7-1973
Event Description: The new US and Russian embassies in Beijing are officially opened.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-10-1973
Event Description: Less than two weeks before the crew of the first Skylab mission is scheduled to return to Earth,mission commander Alan Bean radios the Johnson Space Center with the urgent message "Houston,we have a problem."Further communication with the space station reveals that one of the Russian cosmonauts has detected a mechanical problem with its #2 solar panel and that the second mission may have to be postponed or scrubbed altogether if the problem isn't corrected soon.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-13-1973
Event Description: Apollo 19,the second US Skylab mission,is launched from Cape Canaveral just after dawn.The crew's main assignment will be to assist Alan Bean and his teammates in repairing Skylab's #2 solar panel.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-14-1973
Event Description: Anwar Sadat of Egypt and Golda Meir of Israel unveil ambitious plans to establish a joint Israeli-Egyptian program to develop the Sinai Peninsula and build settlements in the region to provide more housing;the two nations will also assume joint responsibility for the Suez Canal.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-15-1973
Event Description: Further details are outlined regarding the Sinai Peninsula development plan.The Peninsula will be fully demilitarized and a network of joint Arab-Jewish settlement communities established over a period of 2-4 years;there are also provisions for building and operating a tourist center in the seaport of Sharm-el-Sheikh.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-16-1973
Event Description: Apollo 19 docks with Skylab and repairs begin on the station's #2 solar panel.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-17-1973
Event Description: Premier Mikhail Gorbachev establishes the Russian National Central Reserve Bank and Insurance Corporation,an agency whose main goal is provide security for Russia's major financial institutions and keep inflation under control.This boosts confidence at home and abroad in the Russian economy;consequently,within a few months the ruble will become the second-strongest currency in Europe,its strength surpassed only by the British pound sterling.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-19-1973
Event Description: With repairs on Skylab's #2 solar panel complete,the crew of Apollo 19 begins their official tour of duty aboard the space station.Robert L. Crippen succeeds Alan Bean as mission commander for Skylab's US contingent.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-20-1973
Event Description: As part of his administration's efforts to reduce pollution in the United States,President Humphrey signs the Clean Air & Water Act into law;the new law sets strict emissions standards for industry and vehicles and also provides for the creation of a special federal assistance fund--or "Superfund" for short--to aid communities seeking to clean up hazardous waste on their land."We have the strongest economy in the world,"Humphrey says at a press conference following the signing,"and we should take advantage of it to make our air and water the safest it can be."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-22-1973
Event Description: U.S. Secretary of Defense Richard Helms meets with Cairo Pact defense officials in Riyadh to sign an agreement which will permit the United States and Russia to establish permanent defensive bases in the Persian Gulf to counter Saddam Hussein's aggressive actions toward his neighbors.Camp Rhino in Kuwait and Camp Johnson in Jordan will be the US centers of operations;Kutuzov Base in Syria will serve as main headquarters for the Russian forces.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-24-1973
Event Description: Apollo 18 splashes down in the Pacific Ocean just after 11:00 AM US Eastern time;in his post-flight debriefing,Alan Bean reports that Robert Crippen has established a good rapport with Skylab's Russian contingent and the first batch of experiments aboard the station has produced some interesting results,particularly one on how zero gravity affects the growth of crystals.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-31-1973
Event Description: John Kerry retires from the US Navy with the rank of commodore and returns home to Massachusetts to begin attending Boston University Law School.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-1-1973
Event Description: Halliburton's seven-man panel on investigating oil and gas development opportunities in mainland China formally disbands as most of its members return to their previous jobs.One panel member,though,will be staying on with the company;Richard Cheney has impressed Halliburton execs with his relentless drive and his uncanny knack for spotting rewards where others might see only risk.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-2-1973
Event Description: The main flight crew for the second Salyut mission completes training at Star City;the backup crew will complete their training a week later.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-4-1973
Event Description: A group of Puerto Rican World War II and Ussuri War veterans march in Washington to advocate statehood for Puerto Rico.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-6-1973
Event Description: Mikhail Gorbachev signs an executive order granting independence to Estonia, Latvia,Lithuania,Moldova,Belorussia,and the Ukraine.In a televised statement from the Kremlin,the Russian premier explains:"The people of these nations have the full right to pursue their own destiny in freedom and independence.To ask them for settle for anything less would be a cynical endorsement of the old autocratic ways that brought our nation to the brink of disaster."Mikhail Suslov condemns Gorbachev as "a despicable turncoat" but gets little for his troubles other than a chorus of ridicule.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-7-1973
Event Description: President Humphrey and Premier Gorbachev sign the SALT IV pact in Washington;this latest arms control agreement calls for the eventual reduction of the combined total nuclear arsenals of the United States and Russia to fewer than 50 warheads,and provides for technical aid to Great Britain and France in eliminating their own nuclear arsenals.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-9-1973
Event Description: Ground is broken in the Sinai for the first joint Arab-Jewish town;it is appropriately called Shalom,the Israel word for peace.That same day,President Sadat of Egypt announces that free multi-party elections for a new parliament will be held in October."The voices of the Egyptian people cry out for freedom,and we shall listen to them."says the Egyptian president in his speech.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-15-1973
Event Description: Mikhail Gorbachev sets up Russia's first independent national judiciary,consisting of regional courts in St. Petersberg,Moscow,Vladivostok,Kazan,Perm,Ashtrakhan,and Murmansk and a Supreme Court of seven judges to be based in the Kremlin.That same day the Duma votes to hold a consitutional convention in September.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-17-1973
Event Description: Prime Minister Golda Meir announces that all settlements in the Gaza Strip will be dismantled over a period of 6 to 8 months.While PLO boss Yasser Arafat,now living in exile in Libya,scoffs at the announcement as a mere propaganda ploy,moderate Palestinian leaders welcome the news as a major step towards an independent Palestine.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-20-1973
Event Description: Jordanian and Israeli special forces capture most of the PLO's senior staff in a raid on the terrorist faction's headquarters in Ramallah;however,Yasser Arafat,tipped off to the raid by a mole in the Jordanian army,escapes by a cat's whisker and flees for parts unknown.In a statement from his palace in Amman,Jordan's King Hussein congratulates the men who took part in the mission and vows that "we will not rest until Arafat is caught and made to pay all due penalties for his criminal acts".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-25-1973
Event Description: Former CIA deep cover agent G. Gordon Liddy testifies before a federal grand jury that he and a fellow ex-agent,Howard Hunt,were to have carried out the bugging of the Democrats' Watergate offices had the break-in plot gone forward as planned.Liddy's testimony will later serve as a key component of the prosecution's case in the subsequent Nixon trial.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-1-1973
Event Description: Two decades after the Korean War ended,North and South Korea are finally reunited as a final unification treaty is signed in Inchon;the reunified Korea will adopt the South Korean flag as its national ensign and will base its capital in Seoul.The reunification process is expected to take about three years.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-4-1973
Event Description: Camp Monahan,America's first permanent air base in the Persian Gulf,is activated in Kuwait.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-5-1973
Event Description: Russia grants independence to Kazakhstan,Uzbekistan,Turkmenistan,Kyzestan,Tajikstan,Georgia,Armenia,and Azerbaijan.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-14-1973
Event Description: Algeria is formally admitted into the Cairo Pact.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-18-1973
Event Description: The Shah of Iran issues an executive decree making Iran a constitutional monarchy;while the Shah will remain head of state,most of the actual powers of government will be transferred to an elected prime minister,and a new national assembly,or Majlis,will have primary authority for enacting laws and ratifying treaties with other nations.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-22-1973
Event Description: Salyut 2 blasts off from Baikonur Cosmodrome at 6:19 AM Moscow time.Vladimir Shatalov,who was was forced to miss the first Salyut mission due to intestinal flu,is in command of this mission.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-24-1973
Event Description: Salyut 2 docks with Skylab and the crew of Salyut 1 makes final preparations to return to Earth.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-25-1973
Event Description: The U.S. Congress passes a resolution condemning the apartheid government of South Africa.The resolution,sponsored by Democratic Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm of New York,reflects the high priority placed on human rights by the Humphrey Administration in both its domestic and international agendas.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-26-1973
Event Description: The crew of Salyut 1 touches down in a Siberian forest just after 2:00 PM Moscow time;after three days' rest they will be flown to Moscow to receive a hero's welcome from Gorbachev and Yeltsin.Vladimir Putin,now 21,will enlist in the Russian Air Defense Corps a week later in hopes of making his own mark as a cosmonaut one day.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-27-1973
Event Description: Former University of Utah student Karl Rove starts a weekly magazine,Washington In Review;focusing mainly on domestic politics,the new publication quickly attracts huge numbers of both fans and detractors for its unabashed advocacy of conservative causes and politicians.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-28-1973
Event Description: The Russian Duma approves a bill granting regional autonomy to the province of Chechnya;under the provisions of the new act--known in the world press as the Chechen Self-Rule Law--Chechnya's people will have full freedom to run their own schools and practice their own customs while at the same time retaining political and geographical ties to the Russian Republic.The law will later be credited with helping defuse what could have been a severe crisis or possibly even the spark for a civil war.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-29-1973
Event Description: Nikolai Damorov comes out of retirement to assume command as chief of staff for the new Russian Air Defense Corps.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-31-1973
Event Description: President Humphrey submits the North American Free Trade Agreement to the Senate for consideration.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-1-1973
Event Description: The 497th Tactical Fighter Squadron reports for duty at Camp Monahan;its arrival marks the operational debut of a new US Air Force tactical fighter,the McDonnell-Douglas F-15 Eagle.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-4-1973
Event Description: Capitalizing on the attention garnered by their Washington march,Puerto Rican statehood advocates host a similar rally in San Francisco.Nearly 3000 marchers turn out for the event.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-8-1973
Event Description: The United States,Russia,China,the European Union,and the Cairo Pact sign a treaty banning the use of land mines in war and calling for all such weapons to be dismantled or destroyed within ten years.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-10-1973
Event Description: President Humphrey signs an executive order creating Tongass National Park and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-11-1973
Event Description: George Walker Bush receives an honorable discharge from the Air Force Reserve with the rank of full colonel;seeking to establish a solid foundation for his intended future career in politics,he takes a job in his father's Washington office researching public policy issues.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-13-1973
Event Description: President Humphrey signs into law a bill introduced by Senator Robert Byrd of West Virginia abolishing strip mining.Terminating this destructive practice,also known as mountaintop removal,will save thousands of coal miners' jobs in the long run and solidify support for the Democratic Party in West Virginia and other states affected by strip mining.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-15-1973
Event Description: Congress passes the Homeland Security Act to strengthen the Department of Central Intelligence's powers in combatting domestic terrorism.The act provides for local,state,and federal law enforcement agencies to work closely with their counterparts in Mexico and Canada in monitoring North America's borders.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-16-1973
Event Description: Mikhail Gorbachev and Chiang Kai-shek meet in Vladivostok for their first summit.Among other topics,they talk about mutual security concerns and Russian aid to rebuild Manchuria and northern China.Chiang praises Gorbachev for his determination to crack down on corruption and create a free-market society.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-18-1973
Event Description: China's first national stock exchange is opened in Shanghai.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-21-1973
Event Description: The Saudi and Israeli governments announce plans to build an oil pipeline from Riyadh to Haifa.This project,when completed,is expected to enrich both countries.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-22-1973
Event Description: In an interview with 60 Minutes correspondent Morley Safer,John Kerry gives the public a look at a seldom-seen side of his military career as he shows Safer home movies of his old swift boat crew sharing a lunch with Russian infantry troops during a patrol in China shortly before he was transferred to the USS Brumby.When Safer asks Kerry what he would say to Mao Zedong if the two could somehow meet face-to-face,the former frigate and swift boat captain responds,"Just this:'Chairman Mao,you made a huge mistake going to war with Russia,but instead of doing what was right and ending the war immediately you asked millions of Chinese men and women to die for your mistake.How could you do that?'"

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-24-1973
Event Description: Chad,Mali,Niger,and Burkina Faso are admitted into the Cairo Pact.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-25-1973
Event Description: The Trump Hotel Alexandria opens its doors.The new resort attracts many distinguished guests,and is expected to do very well as tourism increases in the Mideast.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-27-1973
Event Description: Gerald Ford,despite his loss in the 1972 presidential elections,tells NBC News that he will probably make another bid for the White House in 1976."I still believe that the Republican Party in general and I in particular have something to offer the American people."he says in an interview with David Brinkley.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-30-1973
Event Description: Mikhail Gorbachev abolishes the old Communist policy of farm collectivization,sparking the largest agricultural boom in Russian history.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-9-1973
Event Description: Russia's first post-Communist constitutional convention opens in St. Petersburg.As a token of good luck,US Vice-President Edmund Muskie presents the convention's keynote speaker with a replica of the gavel which was used to open America's Constitutional Convention in 1787.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-12-1973
Event Description: King Fahd,following the Shah of Iran's lead,ends the era of absolute monarchy in Saudi Arabia and schedules a special assembly of the country's national parliament in two months to draft a new law that will formally change Saudi Arabia into a constitutional monarchy."If there was ever a place for despotism in our nation,"the Saudi monarch tells his citizens in a televised speech from Riyadh,"it no longer exists.It would be hypocritical not to acknowledge that these times demand a new way of political thinking."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-15-1973
Event Description: The Justice Department issues a statement declaring that its investigation of the Nixon campaign's activities concerning Watergate have turned up sufficient evidence of criminal intent to warrant prosecuting the former Vice-President and several key members of his campaign staff.Indictments against Nixon,Haldeman,Woods,Dean,Nixon campaign security director James McCord,and campaign domestic policy advisor John Ehrlichman will be handed down two days later.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-18-1973
Event Description: The US district attorney's office in Los Angeles files 18 criminal counts against the Nixon campaign staff in connection with the Watergate break-in plot.In a related investigation,the IRS launches a probe of suspected irregularities in Nixon's financial dealings over the past two decades.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-20-1973
Event Description: Nixon enters a "not guilty" plea in the Watergate case.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-30-1973
Event Description: Lithuania,Latvia,Estonia,Belarus,the Ukraine,and Moldova officially join the European Union.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-1-1973
Event Description: The Ussuri Territorial Boundary Arbitration Panel issues its final ruling;by a vote of 4-1,it declares that most of the territory in the Ussuri River region rightfully belongs to Russia.However,certain sections of the region's southern boundaries will be ceded to China under the terms of a land rights pact signed by the Gorbachev and Chiang Kai-Shek governments a few days earlier.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-4-1973
Event Description: Defying the trend towards democratization which has swept the rest of the Arab states in the Middle East,Muammar Khadafy declares that Libya will remain a one-party state "as long as the sun rises in the heavens".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-5-1973
Event Description: Apollo 20,commanded by US Air Force general Thomas Stafford,launches from Cape Canaveral at 1:32 PM EST bringing a relief crew to replace the astronauts of Apollo 19 on board Skylab.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-6-1973
Event Description: The Duma ratifies Russia's first post-Communist constitution.Showing the influence Gorbachev's visit to America has had on the Bolshoi Perestroika program,the new document contains a "Statement of Citizens' Rights" similar to the Bill of Rights in the US Constitution and paraphrases the Declaration of Independence in its opening sentence:"We regard it as indisputable truth that all men and women are created equal...."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-7-1973
Event Description: MOSSAD officials advise the Jordanian embassy in Tel Aviv that fugitive PLO leader Yasser Arafat has been signed in the Libyan port of Tobruk.Jordan and Israeli intelligence personnel immediately begin preparations to mount an operation to capture Arafat and extradite him back to Israel to stand trial for his terrorist acts.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-8-1973
Event Description: Apollo 20's crew begins their tenure aboard Skylab while Apollo 19 makes final preparations for their return to Earth.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-10-1973
Event Description: Apollo 19 splashes down in the Pacific 371 nautical miles off Midway just before 2:00 PM US Eastern time.That same day the White House budget office,citing the increasingly high production and operations costs for the Apollo program,recommends that NASA develop a reusable manned spacecraft as soon as possible.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-11-1973
Event Description: In a tightly co-ordinated raid,Jordanian and Israeli intelligence operatives capture Yasser Arafat;the Khadafy government bitterly protests the raid and threatens "unimaginable punishment" for Jordan and Israel if Arafat is not released at once.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-12-1973
Event Description: The United States and Russia sign the International Space Co-operation Treaty in Houston;the innovative pact provides for the two countries to continue and expand their collaboration in space exploration and lays the groundwork for a partnership with the European Union's own fledgling space program.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-13-1973
Event Description: Defying Khadafy's threats,King Hussein of Jordan declares that Yasser Arafat's trial will proceed as scheduled.Egypt places its armed forces on full alert to deter any acts of aggression by Libya.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-20-1973
Event Description: The prosecution and defense in the trial of Yasser Arafat make their opening statements;that same day in Libya,500 protestors march in Tripoli demanding an end to one-party rule in that country.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-1-1973
Event Description: Longtime Spanish ambassador to Russia Juan Antonio Samaranch is sworn in as the European Union's first general secretary.Tony Blair,now graduated from Fettes College,arrives at the EU's headquarters in Brussels to begin a stint as an aide to chief British EU delegate Geoffrey Howe.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-8-1973
Event Description: United Artists releases Network,a film written by veteran screenwriter Paddy Chayefsky which satirizes television's trend towards senationalism in covering news like the Watergate scandal.The movie proves just as controversial as its source material due in part to its gruesome closing scene,in which its protagonist,an anchorman played by Cliff Robertson,commits suicide by blowing his brains out live on the air in the middle of his newscast.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-9-1973
Event Description: 37 people are killed and more than a hundred injured when a bomb explodes at a bus station in Amman,Jordan.Libyan involvement is immediately suspected.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-15-1973
Event Description: Suspicions of Libyan involvement in the Amman market bombing are confirmed when an Iraqi defector tells CIA officers at the US embassy in Kuwait City that the Libyan Intelligence Service had been holding covert training exercises at a camp in southern Iraq to prepare for an attack on what was described as a "soft target" in the Jordanian capital.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-17-1973
Event Description: The US Treasury Department tightens the long-standing embargo banning American companies from doing business with Libya or Iraq.This move is being made in reaction to the Amman market bombing.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-20-1973
Event Description: Construction on the Sayda desalinization plant is completed;to celebrate its opening,Syrian,Israeli,and Lebanese engineers toast each other with glasses of ice water drawn from the first batch of seawater purified by the plant.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-23-1973
Event Description: US and Cairo Pact forces stage Operation Close Call,a training exercise intended to measure how rapidly the United States and its Middle Eastern allies could respond to Iraqi aggression if war broke out in the Persian Gulf.Results are for the most part encouraging,although a few US officers observing the exercise express concern about the slow deployment time of certain elements of the air component of the main defending force.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 12-4-1973
Event Description: A newspaper in Kosice advocates the separation of Czechoslovakia into two separate countries,arguing that the Czech and Slovak peoples will be better off in the long run as separate states.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 12-9-1973
Event Description: For the second time in a month,Jordan's capital Amman comes under terrorist attack;this time the target is the Dean of Student Affairs' office at the University of Jordan.Three people are killed and eighteen injured as a pipe bomb is detonated by remote control on the building's front steps.Within hours arrest warrants have been issued for two Iraqi nationals seen near the office just minutes before the bomb detonated.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 12-13-1973
Event Description: The prime suspects in the University of Jordan campus bombing are captured in Damascus.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 12-16-1973
Event Description: Eight Libyan dissidents are arrested by government secret police in Benghazi for holding an illegal rally condemning the recent bombings in Amman.Most of the eight will subsequently be executed without trial.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 12-23-1973
Event Description: The crew of Salyut 2 mark their 181st day aboard Skylab,setting a new record for the most time logged in space by Russian cosmonauts.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-2-1974
Event Description: The Chiang Kai-Shek government signs a pact with Saudi Arabia under which China will sell tanks and aircraft to the Saudi armed forces;in return,Saudi engineers will assist the Chinese government in modernizing China's petroleum industry.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-5-1974
Event Description: Royal Jordanian Airlines Flight 613 out of Amman bound for Cairo is hijacked forty minutes after takeoff;the hijackers,identifying themselves as supporters of Yasser Arafat,divert the plane to Libya and threaten to kill its passengers and crew within 48 hours unless Arafat is released from Jordanian custody by that time.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-6-1974
Event Description: Continuing to speak out at great personal risk against the Khadafy dictatorship,Libyan dissidents stage a one-day sitdown strike in Tripoli to demand political reform for Libya.Muammar Khadafy rejects their demands,proclaiming:"The Green Book shall guide Libya's path now and forever".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-7-1974
Event Description: One hour before the Flight 613 hijackers' deadline is scheduled to expire,Israeli commandos storm the plane in a surprise raid that kills all but one of the hijackers.The liberated jetliner is then flown home to Jordan with an Israeli fighter escort;the lone surviving hijacker is then arrested by Jordanian authorities.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-8-1974
Event Description: The Dalai Lama returns to Tibet after close to fifteen years in exile.A number of Buddhist temples that had remained closed following China's expulsion from Tibet are reopened.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-9-1974
Event Description: Salyut 3 blasts off from Baikonur just after 6:00 PM Moscow time.It is the Skylab program's first nighttime launch.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-10-1974
Event Description: The Watergate trial convenes in a federal court in Los Angeles.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-11-1974
Event Description: Salyut 2 departs from Skylab as the crew of Salyut 3 docks at the station to begin their tour of duty.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-12-1974
Event Description: King Mohammed Zahir Shah of Afghanistan revives the ancient Loya Jurga parliament and grants them broad authority to reform the Afghan government into a constitutional monarchy.Parliamentary elections are scheduled for the summer of 1975.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-13-1974
Event Description: The member states of the EU sign a pact officially abolishing the last remaining trade barriers in Europe by February 1st,1975.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-20-1974
Event Description: In his State of the Union speech, President Humphrey vows to make it his administration's goal to: "eradicate tyranny all across the globe, and to launch the globe into a new era of freedom and prosperity." He also vows to continue America's economic growth and to launch campaigns for urban renewal, environmental protection, and to promote full racial and gender equality.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-21-1974
Event Description: Mahmoud Abbas,a former associate of Yasser Arafat who later broke with the PLO leader for his refusal to renounce Maoism,establishes the moderate Palestinian Authority as an alternative to Arafat's violent group.He immediately arranges a meeting with Israeli officials to set a date for negotiations on establishing boundaries for the future Palestinian state.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-25-1974
Event Description: Mahmoud Abbas and Israeli prime minister Golda Meir hold their first face-to-face meeting in Tel Aviv.Abbas describes the summit as "highly productive" and confirms that a second meeting will take place in June at Abbas' offices in Jericho on the West Bank.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-1-1974
Event Description: The US Marine Corps accepts delivery of 300 Hawker-Siddeley Harrier jump jets for service with its first-line combat aviation units.The Harrier,a VTOL(vertical takeoff & landing) fighter introduced by the RAF during the late stages of the war with Communist China,is considered to be ideally suited for desert operations because of its ability to fly from even the roughest landing strips.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-3-1974
Event Description: Ronald Reagan tells the Los Angeles Times he will support a second Ford presidential campaign should Gerald Ford choose to run in the 1976 elections."No knock against Presidents Johnson or Humphrey,"the two-time California governor says in his interview,"but after almost fifteen years of Democrat rule I think America is ready for a new face in the Oval Office."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-4-1974
Event Description: Western Sahara joins the Cairo Pact.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-5-1974
Event Description: John Mitchell takes the stand in the Watergate conspiracy trial.His testimony is riddled with contradictions,prompting an exasperated prosecutor to snap at him during cross-exam:"What did Mr. Nixon know,Mr. Mitchell,and when did he know it?!"

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-7-1974
Event Description: Spanish dictator Francisco Franco passes away in Madrid;in his last will and testament,he calls for a consitutional monarchy to replace his Falangist regime."Recent events have shown me that there is no longer any place left in Europe for a one-party autocratic state."Franco says in a written statement released shortly after his death.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-12-1974
Event Description: The North American Free Trade Agreement is passed in the Senate. It will be phased in over a period of two years, and contains strong labor and environmental standards, and provides to funds to help Mexico to reach those standards. Because of the strong labor considerations in the Agreement, very few jobs will be lost. This move is expected to boost the US economy even further.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-16-1974
Event Description: President Humphrey signs into law the Urban Improvement Act,a domestic bill intended to provide funds for improving homes and infrastuctures in America's inner cities;setting up parks and open spaces for urban-dwellers;and creating legal mechanisms to balance environmental protection with human habitation needs.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-25-1974
Event Description: Congress passes a resolution introduced by Representatives Joe Lewis of Georgia and Shirley Chisholm of New York calling for economic sanctions against South Africa.President Humphrey voices his support for the resolution and immediately drafts a bill to put such sanctions into effect.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-27-1974
Event Description: 1500 people march in Bratislava calling for an independent Slovakia.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-1-1974
Event Description: The World Trade Organization is organized in Geneva,Switzerland to facilitate free trade between the member states of the UN;Russia,the United States,and China are among the organization's charter members.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-4-1974
Event Description: Hillary Rodham,in a letter to Little Rock's Arkansas Democrat-Gazette,blasts the American Traditionalist Party as "a bunch of overaged juvenile delinquents at best,and at worst homegrown fascists".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-6-1974
Event Description: The member states of the Cairo Pact sign the first in a series of treaties aimed at eliminating trade barriers between them.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-8-1974
Event Description: Japanese defense minister Kenzo Yamaguri,a decorated Ussuri River War veteran who received two citations for valor while serving as an artillery officer,meets with Chiang Kai-Shek and Li Hsuzhen to issue a formal apology for the abuses committed by Japanese troops against Chinese civilians before and during World War II.As a result of this meeting,Japan and China establish a Truth & Reconciliation Commission to bring to light the full facts about Japan's occupation of China during the 1930s and '40s and make restitution to survivors of that tragic era.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-11-1974
Event Description: The oil pipeline from Riyadh to Haifa is completed;this turns Haifa into a flourishing oil port.Plans are also underway to build a second pipeline alongside the original.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-14-1974
Event Description: The governments of Syria and Israel announce a joint settlement plan for the Golan Heights,similar to the Sinai plan being carried out by Israel and Egypt.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-17-1974
Event Description: The United States and Russia begin drafting blueprints for the first permanent human outpost on the Moon.The installation will be called Tranquility Base in tribute to the Apollo 11 flight five years earlier;the first spacecraft to visit at the new facility is tentatively code-named Mir,the Russian word for peace.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-18-1974
Event Description: Congress passes a resolution demanding that South Africa release longtime African National Congress activist Nelson Mandela from the infamous Robben Island prison camp.Encouraged by the Humphrey Administration's dramatic of show of support for their efforts to end apartheid,ANC leaders contact the US embassy in Johannesburg in hopes of arranging a meeting with Henry Kissinger to discuss ways of putting diplomatic pressure on the government of Jacobus Johannes Fouche.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-26-1974
Event Description: I.M. Pei revises his war memorial park designs to include space for a site paying tribute to American soldiers killed in action during the Korean War.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-30-1974
Event Description: Diplomats from the EU and the Cairo Pact begin negotiations in Jerusalem on a proposed Middle Eastern free trade accord similar to NAFTA.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-4-1974
Event Description: Noted international architect I.M. Pei unveils blueprints for proposed memorial parks in Washington honoring American soldiers killed in action during World War II,Korea,the Ussuri River War,and the Vietnam crisis.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-7-1974
Event Description: Saddam Hussein,jealous of his neighbors' growing prosperity,and coveting more land,begins making long-term plans for war against the Cairo Pact.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-10-1974
Event Description: Fred Trump unveils plans for a luxury hotel complex in Gibraltar.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-15-1974
Event Description: Israeli and Arab diplomats sign an agreement providing for the joint administration of Jerusalem by Israel and its Arab neighbors.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-16-1974
Event Description: Albania and Romania officially join the EU.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-21-1974
Event Description: In an effort to quell the growing opposition to his rule,Muammar Khadafy imposes martial law in Tripoli and Benghazi.This decision backfires;within 24 hours after the martial law declaration is issued,the largest anti-government rally seen yet in Libya is being held in Tripoli just a few blocks from Khadafy's palace.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-23-1974
Event Description: Libyan army and police units massacre 500 protestors at an anti-government rally in Benghazi.UN General Secretary Kurt Waldheim bitterly condemns the massacre,and within hours the General Assembly has voted overwhelmingly to suspend Libya's UN membership,with only Sudan and Iraq opposing the suspension.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-24-1974
Event Description: The Yugoslav government grants regional autonomy to Croatia,Slovenia,and Bosnia-Hercegovinia.Talks begin on according similar autonomy to Macedonia.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-5-1974
Event Description: A referendum is introduced onto the ballot in Puerto Rico on whether or not to seek statehood. This move is being pushed by veterans from the Ussuri River War and World War II. It will be voted on in November.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-6-1974
Event Description: Hosni Mubarak places the Egyptian air force on full alert as a safeguard against possible Libyan attack.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-9-1974
Event Description: India and Pakistan reach a historic agreement on the issue of the Kashmir province;it will be jointly administered by the two nations under a pact similar to the Israeli-Arab agreements regarding the Sinai and the Golan Heights."Today the flowers of peace begin to come into full bloom."says Indian prime minster Indira Gandhi in a televised address from New Delhi.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-11-1974
Event Description: Blueprints for the "space shuttle",NASA's projected successor to Apollo,are an unveiled at a Mars exploration symposium in Houston.The new spacecraft is a bit of a departure from its predecessors:while it would be launched into orbit like a conventional capsule,it would like an airplane as opposed to splashing down in the ocean.This,NASA officials believe,will save the agency millions of dollars on future spaceflight costs.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-18-1974
Event Description: Golda Meir and Mahmoud Abbas meet in Jericho for their second summit.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-4-1974
Event Description: Afghanistan's Loya Jurga meets in Kabul to draft a new constitution;under its terms King Mohammed Zahir will continue to function as head of state,but most of the powers of government will rest with an elected prime minster and the new national parliament.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-13-1974
Event Description: The Afghan government applies via the Egyptian embassy in Kabul for membership in the Cairo Pact.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-19-1974
Event Description: Golda Meir and Mahmoud Abbas arrive at Camp David for their most important summit yet,one in which the frontiers for the future Arab Palestinian state will be set.The agreement that emerges from this conference will come to be known in the press as "the Camp David accords".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-22-1974
Event Description: The Kach party holds a protest rally in the heart of Tel Aviv,drawing 800 demonstrators;these protestors are opposed by a counter-rally of more than 3000 people marching in support of Golda Meir's peace initiatives.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-30-1974
Event Description: Former Nixon campaign press secretary Ronald Ziegler is found dead from a self-inflicted gunshot wound in Alexandria,Virginia.Ziegler,who had been a close friend of Nixon for several years,had learned earlier in the day he would be called to testify in the Watergate conspiracy trial;this pushed an already seriously depressed Ziegler over the edge and ultimately drove him to take his own life.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-7-1974
Event Description: Great Britain and China sign an agreement officially transferring Hong Kong back to the mainland Chinese government by New Year's Day 1986.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-9-1974
Event Description: A heartbroken Edmund Muskie reluctantly announces his resignation as vice-president,citing a recently diagnosed problem with depression."I do not believe that I can continue to effectively serve my president or my country while struggling with this painful psychological disease."Muskie tells the American public in a televised address from his office."I deeply regret that circumstances have forced me to make this choice,but it must be made nevertheless for the good of America."That afternoon,U.S. senate majority leader Mike Mansfield of Montana is sworn in as the new vice-president.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-10-1974
Event Description: With considerable progress being made towards the abolition of nuclear and chemical weapons,the United States,Russia,China,Great Britain,and France now begin discussions on finding ways to also eliminate biologcal weapons as well."The world cannot wait one more day,or even one more hour,to begin seriously tackling the danger germ warfare poses to us all."proclaims chief British negotiator Margaret Thatcher.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-21-1974
Event Description: Yemen joins the Cairo Pact.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-27-1974
Event Description: The resolution regarding the future of Taiwan is schedualed by the Taiwanese government for May 26th,1975.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-30-1974
Event Description: Pakistan joins the Cairo Pact.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-1-1974
Event Description: Afghanistan is admitted into the Cairo Pact.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-3-1974
Event Description: U.S. Surgeon General William H. Stewart commissions Columbia University Medical School to run a 12-month research program on how to more effectively treat depression.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-7-1974
Event Description: Additional Chinese stock exchanges open in Tsingdao,Harbin,Urumqi,and Wuhan.Chiang Kai-shek proudly declares that his country will soon become "the economic tiger of Asia".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-8-1974
Event Description: Commenting on his former running mate's political and personal downfall,ex-Reform Party vice-presidential candidate Spiro Agnew tells the Chicago Tribune:"Richard Nixon's story is a modern Greek tragedy...a man of incredible drive,talent,and aspirations done in by his own personal demons.I wouldn't want to be in his shoes for all the gold in Fort Knox."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-16-1974
Event Description: West Georgia College political science professor Newton Leroy Gingrich publishes the book China Spring,an analysis of the political changes that have been wrought in mainland China by the collapse of the Mao Zedong regime and the rise of Li Hsuzhen's CPDC as well as Chiang Kai-Shek's reassumption of power as leader of China.The book will catapult Gingrich to national prominence over the next few years and later be credited with helping lay the groundwork for his subsequent career in Congress.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-22-1974
Event Description: Representatives from the United States,Russia,France,Great Britain,China,and 13 other nations sign the Bioweapons Moratorium Pact in London.This treaty calls for an immediate halt to the production of biological weapons and the swift destruction of those weapons already in existence.(A few samples of germs such as anthrax will be preserved for medical research purposes.)

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-29-1974
Event Description: At a meeting in Mobile,Alabama,a number of ex-Reform Party leaders join with George Wallace's American Traditionalist Party to become the Conservative Reform Party.The new party's platform calls for ending the "socialism" of the Great Society and the New Deal and for adopting a more isolationist foreign policy.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-3-1974
Event Description: Prime Minister Golda Meir announces that the last remaining Israeli settlements in the West Bank will be dismantled by March of 1975 and that Israel will assist Palestinian refugees in resettling in the homelands from which they were forced to flee during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war;a fund is established to provide financial compensation to the refugee community.In Cairo,Anwar Sadat hails the decisions as "a welcome and important building block for the temple of lasting peace."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-10-1974
Event Description: Moshe Dayan is appointed Israeli ambassador to Pakistan.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-11-1974
Event Description: Author,human rights crusader,and former polticial prisoner Alexander Solzhenitsyn is named the new Russian ambassador to the United Nations.The appointment has been made as a tribute not only to Solzhenitsyn's tireless work in the name of Russian reform but also to his stature as one of Russia's most prominent authors and intellectuals.Before leaving to take up his new post,Solzhenitsyn will speak at the dedication of a monument in St. Petersburg honoring the millions who perished at the hands of Lenin and Stalin during the early years of Communist rule in Russia.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-16-1974
Event Description: In a ceremony held somewhat ironically at Yasser Arafat's former headquarters in Ramallah,Mahmoud Abbas declares the establishment of the Palestinian Arab Republic.Letters of congratulations come in from throughout the Arab world,including one from King Hussein personally delivered to Abbas by Hussein's son,Crown Prince Abdullah.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-17-1974
Event Description: Israel and the United States become the first foreign governments to formally recognize the Palestinian Arab Republic.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-25-1974
Event Description: Mikhail Suslov takes the floor of the Duma,where he utters the most laughable tirade of his political career:"The capitalists have reduced the Motherland to a shadow of her former self!But when I am premier, we will move forward into a worker's utopia!"The Duma votes to censure Suslov, and Russia's media mocks him savagely for his massive tantrum.Yeltsin calls him "a pathetic would-be tyrant, no better than the old NKVD thugs."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-5-1974
Event Description: The Democrats pick up 49 seats in the House and 6 in the Senate in the midterm Congressional elections;with the booming economy at his back and a series of spectacular foreign policy triumphs to his credit,President Humphrey had an easy time campaigning for candidates.In Puerto Rico,the islanders vote 52% to 48% to seek statehood;intensive lobbying by Puerto Rican Ussuri War veterans is credited with a playing a key role in the final outcome.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-6-1974
Event Description: Cornell University professor Carl Sagan is named chairman of the UN's newly established Space Habitation Council.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-18-1974
Event Description: The member states of the European Union sign the European Trade Accord(ETA),a free trade pact similar to NAFTA intended to stimulate Europe's internal economy as well as strengthen its presence on international markets.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-5-1975
Event Description: In an interview with CBS News anchor Eric Sevareid,Thabo Mbeki,a longtime friend and political associate of Nelson Mandela,reports that the jailed ANC activist remains in good spirits despite his incarceration;Mbeki credits part of this to the renewed international outporing of support that has been bestowed on Mandela in the wake of the Peter Arnett arrest."With the help of people of goodwill in the world community,Mandela,Arnett,and all other unjustly imprisoned men in South Africa will soon be free."Mbeki declares.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-7-1975
Event Description: Construction is completed on the town of Arabah;the settlement,whose population is comprised of a mixture of Israelis and Egyptians,will operate as the cornerstone for the Sinai development program over the next few years.In a speech christening the experimental community,prominent Israeli lawmaker Menachem Begin declares:"It is only fitting that here,on these deserts where the world's first great civilizations were born,we today plant the seed for the blossoming of the world's next great civilization."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-10-1975
Event Description: Croatia becomes an independent state;within two months it will be the first of the old Yugoslav republics to join the European Union.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-13-1975
Event Description: As part of the Urban Improvement Act,Boston mayor Kevin White starts a ten-year project to improve the city's mass transit systems,construct more environmentally friendly buildings,and set up a network of underground tunnels to replace most of Boston's above-ground highways.Because of the sheer scale of the proposed construction involved,the massive public works program is nicknamed by the Boston Herald as "the Big Dig".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-15-1975
Event Description: The U.S. Senate begins debate on the Puerto Rico Statehood Act.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-22-1975
Event Description: A Jordanian military tribunal convicts Yasser Arafat on murder and terrorism charges and sentence him to death by firing squad.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-24-1975
Event Description: In his State of the Union address,President Humphrey outlines an ambitious post-Apollo agenda for NASA,with one of the key goals being a permanent manned lunar outpost by 1990 and manned flights to Mars by 2001.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-26-1975
Event Description: In an ironic conclusion to the Yasser Arafat trial,the PLO leader is found dead in his cell just minutes before his death sentence was to have been carried out.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-30-1975
Event Description: A Jordanian doctor announces that his post-mortem autopsy of Yasser Arafat has shown the terrorist kingpin died of an apparent cerebral hemorrhage.His body is subsequently cremated and the ashes sealed in an unmarked grave to deny his followers any chance of making him a martyr.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-1-1975
Event Description: Speaking before the Duma,Mikhail Gorbachev outlines a series of programs intended to reduce unemployment in Russia and encourage increased foreign investment in the country.He will have little trouble getting these programs passed:most of the Duma's seats are held by the RNSDA,and many of the rest are controlled by the more conservative but still pro-Gorbachev National Heritage Party(NHP).

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-6-1975
Event Description: EU and Cairo Pact leaders meet in Tehran to sign the Middle East Free Trade & Economic Development Treaty.Cairo Pact general secretary Muhammad Ibrahim Kamal applauds the new treaty as "a sign of great things still to come".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-14-1975
Event Description: The towns of Jericho,Nablus,Tulkarem,and Jenin are transferred to the jurisdiction of the Palestinian Arab Republic.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-16-1975
Event Description: Veteran South African army general and extreme rightist Michel Vorster is appointed chief deputy to state president Jacobus Johannes Fouche;in his first public speech following his assumption of his new post,Vorster pledges that the ANC and other opponents of apartheid will be--in his ominous words--"crushed into dust".Such comments heighten already deep fears that South Africa is heading towards dictatorship or civil war,if not both.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-21-1975
Event Description: The Senate officially approves the Puerto Rico Statehood Act;the bill will now be sent along to the House of Representatives.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-24-1975
Event Description: John Kerry is approached by the Boston district attorney's office and offered a spring internship;Kerry,realizing that this could benefit his future public service career goals,is quick to accept.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-28-1975
Event Description: Russia and Ukraine sign the ETA.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-4-1975
Event Description: At a conference in Lisbon,the leaders of the EU's members states meet to discuss Europe's economic future.At this conference it is agreed that by 1980, there will be a common European currency known as the Euro;this same conference also sees the approval of Norway and Liechtenstein's applications for membership into the European Union.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-5-1975
Event Description: Gerald Ford confirms that he will run for President again in 1976.Former Illinois congressman Donald Rumsfeld,a staunch Ford supporter during the 1972 elections,will serve as Ford's campaign chairman.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-6-1975
Event Description: Vietnamese prime minister Nguyen Cao Ky and Chinese president Chiang Kai-Shek announce that they will hold on a summit on economic issues in late April with the leaders of Japan,Singapore,Thailand,the Philippines,and Korea.President Hubert Humphrey is also expected to attend the conference.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-8-1975
Event Description: Massachusetts senator Edward Brooke is appointed as new U.S. ambassador to the UN.Brooke,known for his extensive work in helping to foster bipartisan co-operation on Capitol Hill during the early days of the Humphrey Administration,is the highest-ranking African-American to serve at the United Nations since 1950 Nobel Peace Prize winner Ralph Bunche.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-9-1975
Event Description: The House of Representatives passes the Puerto Rican Statehood Act;it is signed into law later day by President Humphrey and preparations begin for Puerto Rico's admission to the Union in the summer of 1976 as the 51st state.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-13-1975
Event Description: The jury in the Watergate conspiracy trial finds Richard Nixon guilty on 17 of the 18 original criminal counts against him;it also convicts him on two further counts of perjury on the stand during his testimony under cross-exam.That evening,in the closing editorial at the end of his nightly newscast,John Chancellor says:"Today,in a Los Angeles courtroom,a political career that began in great promise has ended in disgrace...years from now,no matter what happens to Nixon's co-defendants or Nixon himself,people will still speak of what might have been,of how a Nixon Administration might have transformed America and the world had he not surrendered to his worst instincts.The only bright side to any of this is that the American people were spared the grim spectacle of a President resigning from office under a cloud of suspicion."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-16-1975
Event Description: The Havel government in Prague meets with Slovakian independence advocates to begin negotiations on the issue of separating Slovakia from the Czech Republic.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-21-1975
Event Description: The human rights group Amnesty International publishes The Rape of Iraq,a 60-page report exposing human rights abuses committed by the Baathist regime since Saddam Hussein seized power nearly seven years earlier.Particularly shocking is a five-page-long summary of acts of sexual abuse alleged to have been committed against inmates at the Abu Ghraib prison complex near Baghdad.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-26-1975
Event Description: CIA director James Schlesinger testifies before the Senate Intelligence Committee that information obtained by his station chiefs in the Persian Gulf bears out most,if not all,of the indictments levelled against the Saddam regime by Amnesty International in The Rape Of Iraq.On the heels of this testimony,UN ambassador Edward Brooke introduces a resolution in the Security Council calling for a full investigation into the report's charges.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-29-1975
Event Description: The UN Security Council and General Assembly pass resolutions authorizing a full investigation into the charges levelled by Amnesty International in its report.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-1-1975
Event Description: Saddam Hussein derides the charges levelled at his regime by Amnesty International as "idiotic nonsense" and rejects demands that he co-operate with UN authorities seeking to investigate these charges.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-2-1975
Event Description: Richard Nixon is sentenced to 25-40 years in prison for his role in the Watergate conspiracy.The former vice-president can be seen blinking back tears as he's escorted out of the courtroom,prompting Walter Cronkite of CBS to comment:"Regardless of what one may think of Richard Nixon personally,it cannot be denied that this trial has dealt him a psychological blow from which he may not recover for a long time...if he can recover at all."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-6-1975
Event Description: Cairo Pact diplomats meet in Beirut to discuss the Iraqi government's refusal to co-operate with UN officials seeking to investigate Amnesty International's charges that the Saddam regime abuses political prisoners.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-10-1975
Event Description: Civil rights leader and longtime MLK confidant Jesse Jackson delivers a speech to students at the University of Michigan urging them to take a greater part in the American political process."As our young men showed great courage and determination in fighting the foreign tyrannies of Mao,Kim Il Sung,and Nicolae Ceaucescu,so it is incumbent on all of you to be equally courageous and determined in opposing the tyrannies that beset us here at home."Jackson tells a rapt audience."Despite the successes President Humphrey has achieved during his time in the White House,there is still much work left to be done before America can truly fulfill the great ideals under which it was founded."Listening to a replay of the speech on a Boston TV newscast that night,John Kerry is inspired to begin seriously considering a career in politics.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-14-1975
Event Description: The UN General Assembly passes a resolution imposing a 30-day deadline for the Iraqi government to allow United Nations inspectors to examine its prison system.If at the end of that time Baghdad has still not shown signs that it is ready to co-operate,an international coalition will move to take more drastic action.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-17-1975
Event Description: Dissident Libyan army officers and Islamic clerics overthrow Muammar Khadafy in a relatively bloodless coup;a new provisional government is established in Tripoli and petitions the UN for help in restoring order to Libya.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-29-1975
Event Description: Hubert Humphrey arrives in Vietnam for the first day of the Saigon trade summit;because of a transit workers' strike which began three days earlier,many of Saigon's streets are blocked by stalled traffic,forcing the president to make his arrival via helicopter landing on the roof of the US consulate.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-30-1975
Event Description: On the second day of the Saigon trade summit,Japan,China,Vietnam,Singapore,Thailand,the Philippines,and Korea agree to adopt a common currency by 1981.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-2-1975
Event Description: The Saigon trade summit wraps up with the participating nations having worked out the final details of a Southeast Asian free trade pact.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-10-1975
Event Description: South African right wing extremists march in Cape Town and Johannesburg demanding that the government declare war on the United States at once.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-12-1975
Event Description: Jacobus Johannes Fouche declares that South Africa will not under any circumstances release Nelson Mandela from prison."He is a criminal,a terrorist,and a menace to our security."Fouche insists in a letter to Secretary of State Henry Kissinger.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-13-1975
Event Description: 24 hours before the UN's deadline is scheduled to expire,Saddam Hussein finally agrees to let international observers into Iraq to probe the human rights abuse charges levelled by Amnesty International.Wellesley College graduate and National Security Council staffer Madeline Albright is dispatched to Baghdad as part of the American inspection team,headed by former deputy US attorney general Warren Christopher.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-17-1975
Event Description: UN investigators begin arriving in Iraq.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-26-1975
Event Description: Voters in Taiwan go to the polls for the long-awaited referendum on their homeland's future;sentiment is almost evenly divided between pro-independence and pro-reunification factions,so the final vote tally is expected to be extremely close.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-27-1975
Event Description: The results of the Taiwan special referendum are announced.By a narrow margin,the island's citizens have voted to retain their independence;however,advocates of reunification have not given up hope,and a second ballot on Taiwan's status as a nation is scheduled to take place in 1977.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-30-1975
Event Description: Jimmy Carter formally declares himself as a candidate for the Democratic nomination in the 1976 U.S. presidential elections.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-7-1975
Event Description: Senator Robert Dole of Kansas announces his bid for the GOP presidential nomination in 1976.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-10-1975
Event Description: President Humphrey signs an executive order establishing the Staircase of the Ancients National Monument in Utah.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-15-1975
Event Description: In an interview for the Memphis Commercial Appeal,Tennessee senator Albert Gore Sr. confirms that he will retire after the 1976 presidential and Congressional elections.Gore,a staunch supporter of Lyndon Johnson during the Ussuri War,is well regarded in his home state for his veterans' assistance legislation and his efforts to bridge the racial divide in America;his son Albert Jr.,a Harvard graduate and former combat correspondent for Stars and Stripes,has recently begun to stake out a political career of his own as a researcher with the Senate's Ussuri War MIA committee.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-16-1975
Event Description: Australia and New Zealand sign a free trade accord with the United States and renew their long-standing ANZUS mutual defense pact.Australia and New Zealand both have SAS units stationed at Camp Rhino,and there are also three RNZAF fighter squadrons on duty at Camp Monahan.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-18-1975
Event Description: President Humphrey signs an executive order splitting the Department of the Interior into two separate Cabinet posts;the first,the Department of National History,will have reponsibility for managing federal parks,monuments,and museums,while the second,the Department of Resources and Energy,will be entrusted with overseeing America's mineral wealth and energy supply.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-20-1975
Event Description: Republican senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona flatly rejects an attempt by the Conservative Reform Party to recruit him as their presidential candidate for the 1976 elections,telling the party's leaders in a scathing letter:"If you think I'll turn my back on my friends or my principles just to help a bunch of quasi-fascists score some cheap publicity,you're just as crazy as the press says you are if not worse."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-22-1975
Event Description: The African National Congress organizes a massive general strike in order to protest the Johannesburg regime's continuing refusal to release Nelson Mandela from custody;many white workers stage their own strikes in support of the ANC's action,and South Africa is soon plunged into chaos.In a speech at Cape Town,Johannes Fouche angrily vows to break the strikes:"We're not going to let them(the ANC) create anarchy."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-1-1975
Event Description: The UN inspection team investigating suspected human rights abuses in Iraq publishes its initial findings.According to its report,most of the evidence uncovered to date suggests that the accusations levelled by Amnesty International in The Rape Of Iraq merely scratch the surface of the brutality of the Saddam regime.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-9-1975
Event Description: Georgia and Armenia both formally apply for membership in the European Union.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-11-1975
Event Description: The Conservative Reform Party gets a major boost as senators Jesse Helms of North Carolina and Strom Thrumond of South Carolina, and Congressman John Ashbrook of Ohio announce that they will join the party as full-time members."I have not left the Republican Party."Helms says in a speech on the Senate floor that afternoon."The Republican Party has left me."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-12-1975
Event Description: The United States,Russia,the European Union,and Japan agree to an indefinite moratorium on bottom trawling,a fishing technique which has wreaked havoc on coral growth throughout the world's oceans.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-13-1975
Event Description: Royal Military College of Canada graduate Romeo Dallaire is appointed official Canadian military liaison to the Cairo Pact.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-15-1975
Event Description: At an ANC protest rally in Johannesburg,6000 peaceful demonstrators march singing the famous civil rights anthem "We Shall Overcome."As they reach the heart of the South African capital they are confronted by heavily armed police who riddle the crowd with bullets and assault them with armored personnel carriers;by the time the carnage is over,some 2000 protestors are dead or wounded and many of the city's black neighborhoods are in flames."This latest atrocity by the South African government will not stand."President Humphrey declares in a written statement released by the White House;echoing Humphrey's sentiments,Walter Cronkite says in the editorial segment of his nightly newscast:"Tonight,the government of South Africa has thrown away what few shreds of moral standing it was able to salvage from the tragic fiasco of Sharpeville....it is now all too clear that they intend to preserve their oppressive system of apartheid at any cost even if the cost includes civil war."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-17-1975
Event Description: The Russian Duma passes a resolution harshly condemning the Johannesburg massacre.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-18-1975
Event Description: Canada,Australia,India,and Kenya sever diplomatic relations with the Fouche government.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-20-1975
Event Description: Shirley Chisholm introduces another resolution condemning the brutal Duvalier regime in Haiti.Vice President Mansfield immediately begins intensive lobbying efforts aimed at convincing other members of Congress to support the resolution.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-26-1975
Event Description: After less than a week of debatle,Shirley Chisholm's anti-Duvalier resolution passes with strong majorities in both the House and Senate.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-30-1975
Event Description: The European Union and the United States sever diplomatic relations with South Africa.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 7-31-1975
Event Description: Johannes Fouche is assassinated during a speech to rail workers in Cape Town;his chief deputy,Michel Vorster,assumes control of the South African government and pledges that "the just vengeance of the white citizens of South Africa will burn our enemies like a raging fire."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-1-1975
Event Description: Two black teenagers are arrested in Soweto and accused of being the triggermen in an alleged conspiracy to assassinate Johannes Jacobus Fouche.Although the vast majority of physical evidence and eyewitness accounts indicate a lone gunman was responsible for the assassination,Michel Vorster delivers a televised speech accusing the outlawed ANC of masterminding the supposed plot;within hours of that speech,the teenagers have been hanged along with nearly 200 other Soweto residents accused of participating in what official South African media call "terrorist acts".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-2-1975
Event Description: The South African army kills 3500 demonstrators at Sharpeville,site of the notorious 1960 massacre;another 800 are slaughtered in Cape Town.Scores of black townships are razed to the ground.In a number of instances several whites are seen siding with the ANC protesters,a sign that a growing number of whites are fed up with the racial divide in South Africa.In Washington President Humphrey meets with Prime Minister Heath of Britain and with the leaders of Canada,Nigeria,India, Pakistan,Australia,and New Zealand to map out a strategy for putting an end to the Vorster government's brutality once and for all.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-3-1975
Event Description: New Zealand television journalist Peter Arnett is arrested by South African police in Cape Town shortly after filing a report on the previous day's massacre in that city.Arnett,a former National Geographic correnspondent,has long been considered by the Fouche and Vorster regimes as an enemy of South Africa's government for his numerous stories exposing its brutal treatment of dissidents and political prisoners.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-4-1975
Event Description: The Soweto township is forcibly evacuated by South African army troops on direct orders from the Vorster government.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-5-1975
Event Description: New Zealand prime minister Sir Denis Blundell demands Peter Arnett's immediate release from prison in a letter to the South African embassy in Wellington."The imprisonment of our fellow countryman is nothing less than a blatant insult to the memory of those who founded our Commonwealth."Blundell says in the letter's opening paragraph.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-8-1975
Event Description: South Africa police and military units launch a massive crackdown on the country's independent newspapers,which along with the ANC have been deemed by the Vorster government as "our nation's deadliest enemies".Hundreds of journalists are arrested,and dozens more summarily executed by improvised firing squads.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-10-1975
Event Description: South Africa's ambassador to New Zealand informs Sir Denis Blundell that the Vorster government has uncovered evidence linking Peter Arnett to what it calls "outlaw groups" and "terrorists",and it is for this reason that Arnett has been detained.When Blundell asks to see this evidence,the ambassador abruptly ends their meeting and leaves Blundell's office in a huff;within hours the ambassador has been recalled from Wellington and the New Zealander ambassador in Johannesburg has been expelled.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-11-1975
Event Description: In a press conference at the Russian UN mission in New York,Alexander Solzhenitsyn states that his country will fully support the United States and the European Union in any action they take against the Vorster government in South Africa.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-13-1975
Event Description: Brigadier General Joseph "Dracula" Monahan succeeds Admiral Thomas Moorer as chiarman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.One of his first acts is to draft preliminary battle plans for possible US military action against South Africa,as the Vorster government in Johannesburg is showing signs of becoming increasingly belligerent and building up troops along its borders for aggression against its immediate neighbors and US allies in southern Africa.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-15-1975
Event Description: South African military forces,acting on orders and encouragement from the Vorster government,begin raiding black townships and killing as many blacks as they can get their hands on.However,when units of the South African police try to destroy the black township near Pretoria, they are met by barricades, snipers,and Molotov cocktails.Most of the township's residents manage to flee into the countryside before the police break through.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-17-1975
Event Description: "Free Arnett" rallies are held in Wellington,Christchurch,Pyongyang,Melbourne,Sydney,Tokyo,Shanghai,Vancouver,Toronto,St.Petersburg,Kiev,Montreal,Los Angeles,San Francisco,and New York City.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-18-1975
Event Description: Cuba deploys a 15,000-man troop contingent to Angola to help that country defend its borders against possible invasion by the Vorster regime in South Africa.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-19-1975
Event Description: The European Union imposes an economic boycott on South Africa.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-21-1975
Event Description: The New York Times prints a story charging that a number of French companies are selling military equipment to Iraq in violation of the European Union's arms embargo against the Saddam Hussein regime.The story prompts several French lawmakers in Paris to demand an immediate investigation.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-22-1975
Event Description: Pat Buchanan,a former Nixon speechwriter,declares in a commentary for Warrior magazine:"The liberal Administration in Washington is preparing to attack a sovereign nation that has done nothing wrong....it is a necessity for all good Americans to say 'No' to Humphrey's Marxist-coddling brutality against the great people and leaders of South Africa."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-24-1975
Event Description: Michel Vorster contemptously rejects Sir Denis Blundell's call for the release of Peter Arnett,labelling Arnett "a puppet mouthpiece for Bolshevism."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-26-1975
Event Description: The French ministry of justice convenes an inquiry into the alleged arms sales to Iraq by the companies named in the New York Times's August 21st article.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-27-1975
Event Description: New Zealand's celebrated All Blacks rugby squad announces an indefinite boycott of all rugby events in South Africa and against all South African professional and amateur rugby teams;this boycott is meant to protest not only Peter Arnett's incarceration but also the general policy of racial discrimination in South Africa.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-30-1975
Event Description: African-American poet Nikki Giovanni publishes "Brothers In Irons",a four-stanza poem linking Nelson Mandela's long ordeal at Robben Island to Peter Arnett's arrest and describing the two men as "victims of the disease of intolerance and hate".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 8-31-1975
Event Description: New Zealand actress Noele Gordon,star of the long-running TV drama Crossroads,teams up with co-star David Valla to begin writing a script for a 90-minute special outlining Peter Arnett's prison ordeal.Many of their series co-stars soon get involved as well,and eventually many of the country's leading entertainment figures are actively contributing to the project.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-1-1975
Event Description: The US Justice Department issues a warrant for the arrest of Robert Lee Vesco,a New York financier suspected of laundering money for the Saddam regime in Iraq.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-2-1975
Event Description: British and Commonwealth ground forces begin deploying to Kenya in anticipation of possible war with the Vorster government;simultaneous,the United States dispatches a naval task force to the Indian Ocean and secures the permission of the Madagascar government to station fighter jets on that island.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-3-1975
Event Description: Robert Vesco is arrested in Los Angeles while attempting to board a plane to Kenya.Authorities speculate that Vesco may have been trying to reach Kenya in order to find passage to Uganda or Iraq,where he could evade US extradition treaties.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-6-1975
Event Description: Robert Vesco is indicted in a federal court in New York City.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-11-1975
Event Description: On the fifth anniversary of the Denver Federal Reserve bombing,16-year-old Houston native David Koresh is arrested for trespassing after attempting to hang a banner on the bank's door that reads "Sara Jane More(sic) is innocent!!".Koresh,who followed the trial of Sarah Jane Moore and her co-defendants in the pages of Houston's major newspapers,has long maintained that Moore and the others accused in the bombing were framed by the Justice Department.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-12-1975
Event Description: Johnnie Cochran,a Los Angeles defense attorney well-known for representing Black Panther leader Geronimo Pratt in Pratt's 1968 murder trial,agrees to defend David Koresh at his trespassing hearing.Cochrane,convinced that Koresh's arrest had more to do with his politics than with violating the law,plans to argue that Denver authorities violated Koresh's First Amendment rights when they took him into custody.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-14-1975
Event Description: Johnnie Cochran enters a "not guilty" plea on David Koresh's behalf at the Houston teenager's arraignment;his trial is scheduled for early November.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-19-1975
Event Description: Prisoner of Apartheid:The Peter Arnett Story airs live from TVNZ 1's main studios in Auckland and is simulcast to Australia via satellite.It will be remembered as the highest-rated single night broacast of the year in both countries;a slightly edited version of the program aired in the US is subsequently nominated for a Prime Time Emmy in the Documentary category.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-22-1975
Event Description: On the heels of the massive public response to Prisoner of Apartheid in New Zealand,the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation decides to produce its own documentary on the Peter Arnett case and a companion special exploring Nelson Mandela's 14-year incarceration at Robben Island.Veteran CBC reporter Walt Lacosta is chosen to host the program.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 9-25-1975
Event Description: Actor Martin Sheen leads a crowd of over 3000 demonstrators in Washington at a rally calling for the release of Peter Arnett and Nelson Mandela from prison."The Vorster oligarchy has not only betrayed its own people,it has mocked the very principles of freedom and justice on which human society is founded."Sheen says in a written statement released to several major US and foreign news agencies.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-2-1975
Event Description: Walt Lacosta is arrested and deported on his first attempt to enter South Africa.He is not the only reporter to be experiencing such troubles;since Peter Arnett's incarceration,more than a hundred Western journalists have imprisoned or thrown out of the country by the Vorster-Fouche regime.In fact,even as Lacosta was preparing to embark for South Africa,60 Minutes producer Don Hewitt fired off an angry letter to the South African UN mission in New York City accusing police in that country of physically assaulting one of his camera crews when they visited Johannesburg to shoot background footage for a story three weeks before Arnett's arrest.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-6-1975
Event Description: A Manchester Guardian story on the French government's investigation of suspected illegal weapons sales to Iraq makes the disquieting allegation that at least two British companies may be also be funneling military supplies to the Saddam regime in violation of the EU arms embargo.In a BBC interview that evening,Home Secretary Robert Carr tells one of the network's news anchors:"If even half of this story is true,we're looking at the worst example of treason committed by Englishmen since Kim Philby and Guy Burgess."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-13-1975
Event Description: Texas billionaire and Electronic Data Systems company founder H. Ross Perot donates $500,000 to the U.S. Reform Party because,as he puts it,"the Democrats and the GOP ain't up to the job of running this country and I damn sure don't want the White House in the hands of those lunatics in the CRP".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-20-1975
Event Description: Opening arguments are heard in the Robert Vesco trial.Defense lawyer F. Lee Bailey,previously best-known for representing Dr. Sam Sheppard in the notorious murder case that inspired The Fugitive,enters a "not guilty" plea on Vesco's behalf at the hearing.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 10-28-1975
Event Description: Fashion model-turned-stockbroker Martha Kostyra Stewart is proclaimed "the richest woman in America" by the Los Angeles Times after turning a massive profit on an initially modest investment in the American subsidiary of China's largest private manufacturing company.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-3-1975
Event Description: Walt Lacosta makes his second attempt to enter South Africa,using a disguise obtained for him by a contact in Mozambique;this time he succeeds in entering the country.Using a variety of subterfuges and hidden paths,Lacosta makes it to an ANC safe house east of Johannesburg,where he will remain for two weeks while preparing his report.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-3-1975
Event Description: Opening arguments in the David Koresh trial are heard in an atmosphere one Rocky Mountain Post reporter aptly describes as "a total circus".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-11-1975
Event Description: The Senate passes the Americans With Disabilities Act,the first major legislative initiative dealing with the rights of disabled Americans.The bill's passage is the climax of an intensive five-year lobbying effort by disabled Ussuri and and Vietnam war veterans.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-26-1975
Event Description: President Humphrey announces that irrigation projects will be begun on the Colorado,Missouri,and Mississippi Rivers;the River Valley Authority(RVA), modeled after the old Tennessee Valley Authority,will work with state and local governments to properly manage floods and to prevent drought in the Far West.As a result,the West will be solidified as a Democratic bastion for years to come.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-27-1975
Event Description: Walt Lacosta is smuggled out of South Africa after having completed his report on Nelson Mandela and Peter Arnett.Embarking from Durban in a freighter,the Canadian reporter sails to Madagascar and is then flown to Kenya to rest for three days before returning to Canada to handle the final editing of his story.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 11-29-1975
Event Description: Ground is broken in Shanghai for the Bank of China Tower,which will house China's largest bank.That same day,Chiang Kai-Shek outlines plans to establish a Central Reserve System(CRS) to control inflation and maintain a stable banking system in mainland China;this boosts foreign confience in China's economy.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 12-2-1975
Event Description: Michel St. Andre's hockey career,which had stalled after he was cut by a junior team in his hometown of Fredericton,resumes as he is signed to a temporary free agent contract with the Philadelphia Flyers.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 12-6-1975
Event Description: Walt Lacosta's documentary on the incarceration of Peter Arnett airs on the CBC.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 12-10-1975
Event Description: The governments of Portugal and China sign an agreement which will transfer the city of Macao back to China on New Years Day 1980.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 12-13-1975
Event Description: ABC News chief diplomatic correspondent Ted Koppel attempts to get an interview with South African foreign minister Hilgard Muller while Muller is in Buenos Aires for trade talks with the Argentine government;however,his requests to speak with Muller are repeatedly rebuffed,and when he tries to approach Muller at his hotel Koppel is roughed up by Muller's bodyguards,sparking vehement protests from the network when word of the incident gets back to the US.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 12-15-1975
Event Description: In a rare show of unity,all three of America's major TV networks air a joint editorial bitterly condemning the South African government's treatment of Western journalists.Watching the editorial at his home in Atlanta,UHF television station owner Ted Turner is inspired to come up with the idea for a 24-hour broadcast news service utilizing the then-revolutionary technology of cable television.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 12-24-1975
Event Description: In an indirect rebuke to the Vorster regime in South Africa,Pope Paul VI uses his traditional Christmas Eve mass to decry what he refers to as "undemocratic thoughts and attitudes" towards the world press.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 12-27-1975
Event Description: Confirming months of speculation,Jesse Helms formally declares himself as a candidate for the Conservative Reform Party's nomination in the 1976 presidential elections."With me in the White House,"Helms says in his first official campaign statement,"the American people can rest assured that their traditional beliefs and values will be honored and defended from my first day in office to my last."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 12-28-1975
Event Description: The Vorster regime orders all Western journalists to leave South Africa within 48 hours."We have grown sick to death of the bourgeois Euro-American media's endless defamation campaign against our country."a resentful Michel Vorstel tells the South African National Assembly in a speech aired on the country's official state television broadcast service.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-4-1976
Event Description: Protest rallies are held in Miami,Havana,Paris,and Rio de Janeiro denouncing the corrupt and repressive policies of Haiti's Duvalier regime and calling for Duvalier to step down.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-14-1976
Event Description: The Family Medical and Emergency Leave Act is signed into law by President Humphrey.The new law allows for Americans affected by medical problems or family issues to have a set time of time off from their work,without fear of losing their jobs or pay;this law will greatly boost the Democrats' standing among women.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-17-1976
Event Description: EPA director Russell Train meets with leading environmental figures from 28 countries to discuss the implications of a recently released UN report which concludes that excess carbon monoxide from motor vehicles is contributing to a noticeable and unhealthy increase in the overall average worldwide daily temperatures.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 1-22-1976
Event Description: Ross Perot goes from being a major finanicial backer of the US Reform Party to running as one of its first Congressional candidates,filing papers to enter his name in the Texas primaries for U.S. Senate.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-7-1976
Event Description: South African troops occupy Lesotho and Swaziland;the United States and the European Union respond immediately with a naval blockade of the South African coast and the establishment of so-called "no fly zones" in which tactical fighters will be deployed to interdict South African air force operations.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-8-1976
Event Description: Russia declares that it will support the US-EU blockade of South Africa and back up its words with the deployment of ground troops to the African continent.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-10-1976
Event Description: In response to the invasion of Lesotho and Swaziland,the Organization of African Unity passes a resolution declaring that it will fully support the United States and the European Union in any military action they may take against the Vorster government in South Africa.Russia dispatches 30,000 combat troops to Mozambique and the United States sends at least 60,000 to Madagascar.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-11-1976
Event Description: Aerospace giant Rockwell International wins the contract to build the prototype for NASA's "space shuttle".

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-15-1976
Event Description: At the closing ceremonies of the Winter Olympics in Innsbruck,Austria,hundreds of athletes including women's figure skating gold medalist Dorothy Hamill and men's downhill skiing bronze medalist Herbert Plank sport buttons on their lapels reading "Vorster Moet Gaan!"(Vorster Must Go!) in protest of the South African dictator's increasingly brutal repression of dissenters and racial minorities.New Zealand team flag-bearer Stuart Blakely shows up at the festivities wearing a jacket with fellow countryman Peter Arnett's picture stenciled on the back bearing the caption 'Let Him Out!'

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-20-1976
Event Description: Robert Vesco is convicted on money-laundering charges and sentenced to 25-50 years in prison.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-22-1976
Event Description: Two additional US Air Force squadrons are deployed to Camp Monahan to provide air cover for American ground troops in the event of war with Iraq.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 2-23-1976
Event Description: F. Lee Bailey files an appeal of Robert Vesco's prison sentence;looking to add some extra firepower to Vesco's defense team,he recruits Wyoming native and fellow defense attorney Gerry Spence to act as second chair for a possible retrial.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-2-1976
Event Description: In a major upset,Jimmy Carter beats Hubert Humphrey in the Massachusetts and Vermont Democratic primaries,narrowing the gap between Humphrey and Carter to just six points in the race for the Democratic nomination.The surprise Carter victories are credited to a series of TV ads in which the Georgia governor touted a series of proposed health care reforms even more ambitious than the major overhaul already being contemplated by the Humphrey Administration for its second term.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-4-1976
Event Description: A New York state appeals court rejects the Robert Vesco defense team's bid for a new trial.In his ruling,the presiding judge in the appeal comments that "Mr. Vesco has consistently and intentionally trampled on not just the letter of the law,but its spirit as well."Undaunted,F. Lee Bailey vows that a second appeal will be immediately filed in federal court.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-5-1976
Event Description: Kenyan president Jomo Kenyatta is wounded in an assassination attempt in Nairobi.CIA analysts suspect a link between the Vorster government in South Africa and the would-be assassins.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-6-1976
Event Description: British and French engineers begin construction work on the "Eurotunnel",an underwater road and rail link connecting the two sides of the English Channel.When completed,it is expected to be the longest tunnel of its kind in Europe.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-9-1976
Event Description: The Humphrey-Mansfield ticket recovers from its Massachusetts and Vermont defeats with a win in the Florida Democratic primary.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-10-1976
Event Description: South African occupation forces in Lesotho execute King Moshoeshoe II at a public hanging in the capital city of Maseru for his refusal to stem the anti-Vorster protests which have been happening almost hourly since the country was invaded.In Swaziland,King Sobhuza II is arrested by South African military forces and extradited to Robben Island.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-13-1976
Event Description: The jury in the David Koresh trial clears him of trespassing charges.An attempt by the prosecution to prove his guilt by presenting a pair of beat-up sneakers belonging to Koresh as evidence backfired when Johnnie Cochran had Koresh try them on for the court;after being informed they were two sizes two small,Cochran told the jury:"If the shoes don't fit,you must acquit."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-16-1976
Event Description: President Humphrey follows up his Florida victory with a win in the Illinois Democratic primary;on the Republican side Gerald Ford easily beats Tennessee senator Howard Baker,who until now had been considered Ford's number one rival for the GOP nomination.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-20-1976
Event Description: Confirming a link between the South African government and the failed assassination attempt against Jomo Kenyatta,a defecting senior National Intelligence Agency official tells the CIA station chief in Nairobi that Kenyatta was the first in a long line of African leaders whom the Vorster regime in Johannesburg has targeted for elimination.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-21-1976
Event Description: Los Angeles mayor Tom Bradley launches a new program to reduce vehicle pollution in the city;modeled after Boston's "Big Dig" project,the program calls for the building of greater mass transit systems and for pollution controls on city utilities.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-24-1976
Event Description: The aircraft carrier USS Independence is attacked by Iraqi warplanes near the mouth of the Strait of Hormuz;however,the raid inflicts little damage and the planes conducting it are quickly shot down by American fighters.CIA Persian Gulf specialists believe that the Iraqi raid was meant as a test of US resolve.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-26-1976
Event Description: Convinced that war with the United States and the European Union will destroy their country no matter what the outcome,dissident South African army officers launch a rebellion against the Vorster regime.Though many of the rebel leaders are soon killed or imprisoned,support for their cause is widespread among all ethnic groups,and within 48 hours rebel forces have seized control of Durban and Cape Town.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 3-30-1976
Event Description: Chiang Kai-shek meets with European and Asian leaders in Beijing to pitch his proposal for what he describes as "a second Silk Road",a series of communications networks that would help facilitate greater trade between Asia and Europe.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-4-1976
Event Description: In a televised speech from the South African rebel forces' headquarters in Durban,journalist-turned-rebel spokesman Donald Woods urges his fellow country to take a more active role in the uprising:"We must abolish tyranny and racism in South Africa today or the fires of war will destroy everything we hold dear."Woods' "fires of war" speech is widely quoted in newspapers worldwide and will later be credited with having helped spark the final overthrow of the Vorster regime.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-6-1976
Event Description: After a tough loss in the Wisconsin Democratic primary,Jimmy Carter withdraws from the 1976 presidential race;in his farewell speech,he declares that he will support the Humphrey campaign."President Humphrey,"Carter tells his listeners,"represents the most progressive leadership this country has seen since Franklin Roosevelt."Humphrey will later adopt most of Carter's health care reform proposals.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-8-1976
Event Description: The federal appeals court in New York City rejects the Robert Vesco defense team's latest appeal.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-11-1976
Event Description: Howard Dean,now practicing medicine back home in Vermont,joins Democracy in Action,a liberal grass-roots lobbying organization dedicated to combatting far right parties like the CRP.Though officially non-partisan,the group generally tends to support Democratic candidates;it will later be credited with helping swing the 1976 presidential elections in Humphrey's favor.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-15-1976
Event Description: Tower 1 of the World Trade Center,a new 110-story office complex,is completed in New York City;construction on the second tower is expected to start within a month.When opened,the two skyscrapers are expected to be the largest buildings of their kind in the world;the Trade Center is the flagship of a highly ambitious downtown construction project being carried out by the federal government and New York's Beame mayoral administration under the Urban Improvement Act.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-21-1976
Event Description: Preceding the Republican and Democratic national conventions by at least three months,the U.S. Reform Party holds its first convention in San Antonio,nominating consumer rights advocate Ralph Nader as its presidential candidate;Nader selects peace activist Tom Hayden as his running mate.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-25-1976
Event Description: Iraqi medium-range ballistic missiles armed with high explosive warheads hit the Iranian towns of Dezful and Khorramabad;as authorities in Tehran are trying to cope with the aftermath of these missile strikes,Saddam Hussein orders his ground troops to cross the border to capture the town of Dehloran.The Persian Gulf War has begun.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-26-1976
Event Description: At an emergency meeting in Amman,Jordan,the member nations of the Cairo Pact issue a declaration of war against Iraq;Golda Meir states in a radio address from Tel Aviv,"We will sweep the tyranny of Saddam Hussein into the ashheap of history."Within hours after the declaration,Jordanian missiles are striking Iraqi bases in Mosul and Kirkuk,while US warplanes flying from Camp Monahan and from Turkey make their first bombing runs against Iraqi military and industrial targets.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 4-27-1976
Event Description: In a televised speech from Moscow,Russian premier Mikhail Gorbachev authorizes Russian air and ground forces in Syria to begin offensive action against Iraq.By noon Moscow time that same day,Russian armor and infantry divisions,backed up by elements of the Syrian army,are engaging Iraqi forces near the village of Husaiba and Russian Air Defense Corps jets are hitting air bases throughout western Iraq.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-1-1976
Event Description: The European Union's executive council votes unanimously to deploy troops to Iraq.In a live BBC interview,British defense minister Roy Mason spells out the EU's posture in very stark terms:"We won't stop until Saddam Hussein's been taken off his throne either in handcuffs or in a pine box."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-4-1976
Event Description: After nine days' bitter fighting,Iranian troops push the Iraqi army out of Dehloran.Along the Kuwait-Iraq border,Kuwaiti and Saudi ground forces hand the Iraqis a costly defeat near the town of Abdaly;of the 60,000 Iraqi soldiers sent to capture the town,33,771--more than half of the attacking force--are killed or wounded in action and another 850 or more are captured.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-6-1976
Event Description: Sudan,Iraq's lone remaining ally in the Arab world,dispatches 40,000 troops to the Persian Gulf;at a speech in Khartoum,Sudanese leader Gaafar Nimeriy declares,"It is our solemn duty to come to the aid of our Arab socialist comrades in their hour of crisis."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-7-1976
Event Description: The Kurds,an ethnic minority long persecuted by the Saddam Hussein regime, begin a revolt against the Iraqi government.This forces Saddam to deploy critical troops to the north to put down the uprising.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-8-1976
Event Description: Kuwaiti and Saudi troops,backed by two divisions of US Marines,invade the southern Iraqi port of Umm Qasr,widely regarded by both sides as Iraq's most vital seaport.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-10-1976
Event Description: RAF Flight Officer Nigel Walker is posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross for heroism during a tactical air strike against Iraqi defensive positions at the port of Al Faw during an amphibious assault by British Royal Marines.Despite being seriously wounded by Iraqi anti-aircraft fire,Walker continued to provide air support for the landing forces until his plane crashed and burned;this enabled British troops to establish a solid foothold within the city.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-11-1976
Event Description: Pakistani and Afghan troops arrive in Iran to help the Iranian army bolster its frontier defenses against further Iraqi assaults.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-13-1976
Event Description: Lieutenant General Norman Schwarzkopf,commander-in-chief of American forces in the Persian Gulf,reports in a press conference at Camp Rhino that Umm Qasr is now fully in coalition hands after five days' fighting.Preparations can now begin for American,Saudi,Kuwaiti,and British troops to make an all-out drive on Basra,Iraq's second-largest city.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-15-1976
Event Description: The drive for Basra begins as coalition armored units battle three Iraqi tank brigades southwest of the city.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-17-1976
Event Description: Russian airborne troops and Turkish infantry attack Mosul to aid the Kurdish uprising in northern Iraq.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-18-1976
Event Description: Israeli paratroopers seize a vital Iraqi airbase east of Basra as additional American and Saudi forces begin deploying to the battlefront.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-21-1976
Event Description: Egyptian troops clash with the Sudanese army along the Egypt-Sudan border.Algeria and Tunisia deploy ground forces to help the Egyptian army repel the Sudanese attack.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-23-1976
Event Description: Elements of the Sudanese expeditionary force to Iraq clash with American,British,and Saudi troops 70 miles south of Basra.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 5-26-1976
Event Description: Iranian warplanes strike military and command/control targets in and around Baghdad.Former Iraqi ambassador to Sweden Mohammed Saeed al-Sahaf,now a commentator for the official state radio news service,boasts in his daily broadcast that "the enemy's bombs have hardly even touched us" in spite of the fact that scores of buildings,including the headquarters of Iraq's military intelligence service,are severely damaged or destroyed outright.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-1-1976
Event Description: F-14 Tomcats off the USS John F. Kennedy attack South African government positions near Port Elizabeth in support of rebel forces.Though the United States has yet to commit any ground forces to the guerrilla war in South Africa,it has provided constant air support for the rebels since the uprising began.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-3-1976
Event Description: Coalition troops in Iraq break through the Sudanese front lines and resume their advance towards Basra.Isolated pockets of Sudanese resistance will continue to fight on for several more days,however,requiring coalition air forces to step up tactical strikes in the area.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-5-1976
Event Description: Egyptian warships patrolling the Red Sea intercept a Brazil-registered freighter bound for Iraq;when searched,the freighter is discovered to contain crates of weapons manufactured in Uganda,suggesting that the dictatorship of Idi Amin may be secretly aiding Saddam Hussein.Brazilian president Ernesto Geisel immediately orders a top-to-bottom investigation of his country's merchant marine and vows that anyone caught in the act of smuggling military equipment to Iraq will be severely punished.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-7-1976
Event Description: Idi Amin angrily denies that his government is smuggling weapons to Iraq,dismissing the accusation as "nothing more than a racist lie motivated by the jealously the rest of the world feels toward my greatness."

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-9-1976
Event Description: In a press conference at the Pentagon,Joint Chiefs of Staff chairman General Joseph "Dracula" Monahan tells reporters that coalition ground troops in Iraq should be ready to make their final push on Basra within 5-7 days.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-10-1976
Event Description: American,Israeli,and Saudi fighter jets bomb Iraqi defensive positions near Basra.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-11-1976
Event Description: A team of US Navy SEALS infiltrates the Robben Island prison and frees Nelson Mandela and Peter Arnett from their confinement.Shortly after their rescue,the two men are flown to Kenya via helicopter;Arnett is taken to the New Zealand embassy in Nairobi,while Mandela is escorted to an ANC consular office in the town of Kigumo.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-12-1976
Event Description: Robben Island's warden is fired for his failure to prevent the escapes of Nelson Mandela and Peter Arnett.

Timeline Number: 2437
Event Date: 6-13-1976
Event Description: Coalition ground forces in Iraq launch Operation Just Cause,the three-prong final assault on Basra.To distract the Iraqi army from the attack,Iranian ground forces stage a series of hit-and-run attacks along the Iran-Iraq border. (Contributor's Note: For events beyond this date, see Timeline 2597--Ussuri River War:Postwar Era Part 2.)


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