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Timeline Number: 4189
Timeline Name: Truman pardons Hiss.
Date: 4-14-1953
Event:
In a special election, Rep. Philip J. Philbin is elected to the House of Representatives as a Republican, retaining the seat he had hed for ten years as a Democrat.

It is a startling development in heavily Democratic Massachusetts. Rep. Philbin is helped, however, by the conservative character of his central Massachusetts district, by the quiet endorsement of a number of Catholic clergymen, and by the foreshortened schedule of the special election, which makes it difficult for any opponent to be mobilized against him.

Timeline Number: 4189
Timeline Name: Truman pardons Hiss.
Date: 2-17-1953
Event:
Democratic congressman Philip J. Philbin, first elected in 1942, creates a minor sensation when he announces his intention to bolt his party and become a Republican. “I no longer feel that the Democratic Party represents the people of the United States,” he proclaims. “Therefore, I shall no longer represent the Democratic Party in Congress but shall seek to represent the people of my district as a member of the Republican Party.”

Reaction is immediate, with the Boston Globe editorially denouncing Philbin’s move as “self-serving” while the Worcester Telegram praises it.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 2-5-1980
Event:
President Rockefeller leaves Walter Reed Hospital. Reporters inquiring as to the outcome of his examination are put off with the statement that the President prefers to wait until “all the test results are in” before commenting. This is widely seen as an evasion, fueling rumors that Rockefeller’s doctors have found something seriously wrong with him.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 2-1-1980
Event:
President Rockefeller is checked into Walter Reed Hospital for what is described as a “routine follow-up examination.”

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 12-17-1979
Event:
New York Gov. Hugh Carey announces he will seek the Democratic presidential nomination in 1980.

Timeline Number: 4033
Timeline Name: Dowager Empress Cixi dies.
Date: 5-1-1912
Event:
Sun Yat Sen began a series of reforms in administration. He ordered the adoption of western solar calendar while the traditional lunar calendar was retricted to religious and ceremonial purposes. He had employed many former Qing officials to serve in the republican government. He also had issued orders to abolish old orders and adoting new ones.

Timeline Number: 4189
Timeline Name: Truman pardons Hiss.
Date: 4-8-1968
Event:
With the Rev. King forcibly expelled from Memphis, the planned protest goes forward under the substitute leadership of the Rev. Ralph Abernathy. Rev. Abernathy delivers a rousing speech, but as he finishes, a white man pushes forward, pulls out a gun and fires at close range. Police mve in an arrest the shooter, an escaped convict named James Earl Ray, along with a number of the marchers.

Rushed to St. Joseph’s Hospital, Abernathy is given emergency surgery, but to no avail. At 8:39 that evening, he is pronounced dead.

While Abernathy is undergoing his futile treatment at St. Joseph’s, a young activist named Jesse L. Jackson addresses the shocked edemonstrators, claiming to have received Abernathy’s personal blessing to “carry on the work.” Many in the crowd are moved by the passionate young man’s words, although others will condemn him as an opportunist.

Timeline Number: 4189
Timeline Name: Truman pardons Hiss.
Date: 4-6-1968
Event:
Rev. Martin Luther King is released from jail in Memphis and ordered to leave the city. He is escorted under armed guard to the airport, where his warders watch as he purchases a ticket and boards the plane. “Don’t come back,” one of them warns him, “or you ain’t ever leaving.”

Timeline Number: 4189
Timeline Name: Truman pardons Hiss.
Date: 4-3-1968
Event:
Arriving in Memphis for a speech scheduled for the following day in anticipation of the march planned for April 8, Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. is arrested by local police on charges of “conspiring to incite violence.” He will be held for three days before being released.

Timeline Number: 4189
Timeline Name: Truman pardons Hiss.
Date: 3-28-1968
Event:
A march led by civil-rights activist Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. in support of striking black sanitation workers in Memphis, Tennessee is disrupted when several of the marchers smash a storefront window. The violence spreads and police move in with nightsticks and tear gas. Several demonstrators are shot and killed, and a number are arrested, as is Rev. King.

King is released the following day. Distressed at the violent turn taken by what had been intended to be a peaceful protest, King schedules another march for April 8.

Timeline Number: 4262
Timeline Name:
Date: 11-3-1957
Event:
The USSR launches a second Sputnik, this one carrying a dog, Laika. Although the dog dies in orbit after a few hours from stress and overheating due to a malfunction in the capsule’s environmental controls, her successful launch proves that animals, and therefore potentially humans, can survive an orbital launch and can endure weightlessness.

In the U.S., some space enthusiasts are angry that the Eisenhower administration has allowed the Soviets to steal a march on the U.S. by being first to put a living creature in orbit. The President, however, dismisses the launch as a “cheap propaganda stunt” and points out reassuringly to reporters that after all, Laika died, indicating, he says, “the Soviet disregard for life which derives from their atheistic Communist beliefs.”

At NASA, the mood is one of frustration. Space agency scientists have been planning for years how to get animals and then humans into orbit, but with the Administration pressing them to devote their efforts to countering the perceived Soviet ICBM threat, none of their plans have gotten past the technical study stage. And after the way NASA chief Glennan’s October 11 meeting with the President went, neither Glennan nor anyone else is optimistic that this will change any time soon.

Timeline Number: 3590
Timeline Name: Pacific War
Date: 10-25-1942
Event:
Stalin in a change of heart recalled his famous general Georgi Zhukov to lead the defense of Stalingrad. Using all available resources and men from Siberian Military District, Zhukov is able to amass a huge concentration of forces in both flanks either side of the city. Total force of 3.5 million men, 10,850 tanks, 10,500 aircraft, 41,600 artillery pieces and mortars, 3,255 truck-mounted Katyusha rocket launchers, and 95,383 motor vehicles are used in smashing the German allied flanks in either side of the city and enveloping and trapping the German 4th Army under Rommel. Rommel meanwhile is killed by a famous Russia sniper Vasily Zaitsev.

Timeline Number: 1515
Timeline Name: Second Russian Revolution
Date: 5-30-1999
Event:
The Chinese taking into account Americans's concentration of Europe, launch an invasion of Japan. Under a massive barrage of 50,000 rockets incinerating many of the Japanese military defenses and bases, the Chinese launch an amphibious fleet of 50,000 landing ships. Landing at the 2 foremost islands of Hokkaido and Kyushu about 4.5 million men, 6,250 tanks, 7,500 aircraft, 41,600 artillery pieces and mortars, 3,255 truck-mounted Katyusha rocket launchers, and 95,383 motor vehicles, the Chinese encountered stiff and heavy resistance. The Battle of Japan lasted only 2 weeks, with the Chinese victorious.

Timeline Number: 4225
Timeline Name: Gore vs Bush
Date: 6-7-2002
Event:
President Gore visits New Delhi, ostensibly to discuss preparations for Indus Balance. While there he plans to confer with Prime Minister Atal Vajpayee and Defense Minister George Fernandes to secure their agreement to allow U.S. forces to use their country as a staging ground for a military strike against Pakistan using Indus Balance as cover. It is anticipated that he will have little difficulty in persuading them, as Prime Minister Vajpayee is known to fear the prospect of dealing with a nuclear-armed Islamist Pakistan.

Timeline Number: 4225
Timeline Name: Gore vs Bush
Date: 6-3-2002
Event:
At a meeting with the Joint Chiefs of Staff, President Gore asks what the military options are for intervention in Afghanistan.

JCS chief Shelton favors a lightning strike at Islamabad from positions across the border inside India, aimed at decapitating the newly-installed Ahmed regime, under cover of a previously scheduled joint U.S.-Indian military exercise, Indus Balance. Shelton recommends moving the planned exercise forward from its scheduled date in October to minimize the new regime’s opportunity to consolidate its power.

Timeline Number: 4211
Timeline Name: Truman Pardons Hiss II: Stormy Weather
Date: 7-17-1972
Event:
Security guard Frank Wills apprehends five men who have apparently broken into Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate Hotel in Washington, D.C. Taken into police custody, the five are interrogated; one of the men, James McCord, is identified as a security coordinator for the Republican National Committee and the Committee to Re-Elect the President, popularly known as CREEP.

McCord will be fired the next day, but this action will not make Watergate disappear as an issue.

Timeline Number: 4211
Timeline Name: Truman Pardons Hiss II: Stormy Weather
Date: 10-8-1970
Event:
Early in the morning, campus security and NYPD tactical-police officers storm Hamilton Hall, forcibly evicting its student occupiers. One student is killed and several others are injured. Despite the fact that three of the officers are black, the cry goes up that the demonstrators, a large percentage of whom are black, were attacked by an “all-white” assault force.

Timeline Number: 4211
Timeline Name: Truman Pardons Hiss II: Stormy Weather
Date: 10-7-1970
Event:
With U.S. troops in combat with North Vietnamese Army units inside North Vietnam, massive demonstrationa are held at several U.S. universities. At Columbia University in New York City, the offices of the administration in Hamilton Hall are occupied by protestors who refuse the orders of campus security guards to vacate the premises.

Tensions had been building at Columbia for some time, since the discovery by student activists of papers in the International Law Library linking the university to a Defense Department think tank called the Institute for Defense Analyses. Several students had been placed on probation for violating a university policy against indoor demonstrations, prompting a short-lived student strike.

Timeline Number: 4211
Timeline Name: Truman Pardons Hiss II: Stormy Weather
Date: 10-2-1970
Event:
South Vietnamese and U.S. troops cross the border into North Vietnam, allegedly in “hot pursuit” of North Vietnamese army units and Vietcong insurgents.

In the United Nations, Soviet ambassador Andrei Gromyko denounces this incursion as “unmasking the falsehood of American pretenses that U.S. actions in Southeast Asia are of a defensive nature.” He goes on, “Having inflicted devastating damage upon the peace-loving people of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, the American imperialists now invade that republic’s soil, seeking to crush its socialist system once and for all and draw it within their sphere of control.”

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 1-21-1980
Event:
Kennedy cousin and former vice-presidential candidate Sargent Shriver announces he will run for the Democratic presidential nomination.

Shriver’s announcement is greeted with some disdain. Many political insiders consider him irretrievably damaged by his role as George McGovern’s replacement for Thomas Eagleton in McGovern’s spectacularly failed run for the White House in 1972.

Timeline Number: 4211
Timeline Name: Truman Pardons Hiss II: Stormy Weather
Date: 8-1-1972
Event:
Thomas Eagleton withdraws as George McGovern’s vice-presidential running-0mate, humiliating McGovern--who had publicly said he supported Eagleton “1,000 percent”--and forcing him into an embarrassing scramble for a replacement. After several prospects, sensing doom, turn him down, Kennedy cousin Sargent Shriver finally agrees to join McGovern on the ticket.

Timeline Number: 4211
Timeline Name: Truman Pardons Hiss II: Stormy Weather
Date: 7-13-1972
Event:
George McGovern is nominated for president at the Democratic National Convention in Miami Beach. In his acceptance speech, he announces he has chosen Sen. Thomas Eagleton of Missouri as his running-mate.

It will prove to be a disastrous move when it is revealed that Eagleton had checked himself into the hospital on three prior occasions for physical and nervous exhaustion and had received electric-shock treatments there. The controversy over Eagleton will receive far more attention in the weeks after the convention than will McGovern’s calls for an end to the wars in Cuba and Southeast Asia and for a renewed commitment to civil rights reforms and combating poverty.

Timeline Number: 4211
Timeline Name: Truman Pardons Hiss II: Stormy Weather
Date: 7-10-1972
Event:
The Democratic National Convention opens amid controversy in Miami Beach, Florida. George S. McGovern is the clear leader in delegates after his victory in the California primary. Hubert Humphrey, however, complains that California’s winner-take-all rule is unfair and that since he lost to McGovern by only a small margin, he should get a share of the delegates from that state.

Many party insiders, fearing the consequences of a McGovern nomination, side with Humphrey. McGovern’s supporters are furious, accusing HHH of wanting to change the rules after the fact not because they were unfair but because doing so will benefit him.

Timeline Number: 4211
Timeline Name: Truman Pardons Hiss II: Stormy Weather
Date: 6-6-1972
Event:
“Peace candidate” George McGovern shocks the Democratic Party’s leadership by winning the California primary, narrowly defeating Hubert H. Humphrey. Until then, party elders fearful of McGovern’s “extreme” liberalism had hoped he could be decisively beaten before the national convention. It now appears that will not happen.

Timeline Number: 4225
Timeline Name: Gore vs Bush
Date: 5-31-2002
Event:
At an emergency meeting of the National Security Council, President Gore and his advisers confront the Pakistani coup.

There is consensus that it is a disaster for U.S. interests. The authoritarian General Musharraf was far from an ideal American ally, but the emergence of an Islamist regime threatens to turn a nuclear-armed state into a staging ground for Islamic terrorism.

The President’s advisers are united in urging immediate action to unseat Ahmed and either restore Musharraf to power or install another secular-oriented figure. There is disagreement over how to do it, though, with Tenet calling for a covert operation and the rest opting for open military action. Gore notes that Tenet supposedly already has a covert op underway in Pakistan, Operation Mountain Strike, the aim of which is to capture or kill Al Qaeda’s Ayman al-Zawahiri. “Is it really feasible,” he asks, “either to expand this operation to encompass regime change in Islamabad as well, or mount another covert effort for that purpose? How covert would it stay if we did? And if it isn’t likely to stay covert anyway, why not simply intervene openly, as in Afghanistan?”

Tenet reluctantly acknowledges that secrecy may be impossible to maintain. Obviously unhappy, he admits that Mountain Strike itself is becoming an open secret in northern Pakistan.

Gore decides he has no choice but to order direct military intervention.

Timeline Number: 4225
Timeline Name: Gore vs Bush
Date: 5-30-2002
Event:
Pakistan’s president Musharraf flees the country. That eveining, Gen. Mehmood Ahmed goes on Pakistani national television to proclaim himself president of a newly declared “Islamic Republic of Pakistan.” He announces that new laws will be drafted to bring the country’s legal and political systems “into line with the will of Allah as expressed through the Holy Koran,” and warns that dissent will be punished as an offense not only against the state but against the faith.

Timeline Number: 4163
Timeline Name: Continental Congress Collapses.
Date: 2-12-1814
Event:
With violence subsiding, Fort Nashboro’s commander lifts martial law. Military rule had been of only limited effectiveness anyway in the thinly-settled Tennessee colony. He does, however, request a permanent increase in the number of troops allotted to his command.

Timeline Number: 4163
Timeline Name: Continental Congress Collapses.
Date: 10-12-1813
Event:
Governor William Franklin of New Jersey declares his colony loyal and orders the dispatch of the colonial militia to Pennsylvania to “assist in the restoration of order in that colony.”

It will be his last official act; the governor, who is over eighty years old, will die four days later. Ironically, the fiercely Tory Franklin is the illegitimate son of the infamous rebel agitator Benjamin Franklin, a stain on his reputation he has labored for decades to expunge.

Timeline Number: 4163
Timeline Name: Continental Congress Collapses.
Date: 9-19-1813
Event:
Responding to the “Fort Nashboro Massacre,” as survivors have labeled the July 31 confrontation, furious Tennessee settlers attack the fort, bringing with them not only guns but several artillery pieces acquired by dubious means. They succeed in breaching the fort’s stockade, but are cut down by garrison troops.

In the aftermath of the battle, the garrison commander declares martial law in effect throughout Tennessee. Word of his action inspires riots not only in the afected territory but in several other colonies, including Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and Virginia.

Timeline Number: 4163
Timeline Name: Continental Congress Collapses.
Date: 8-8-1813
Event:
Andrew Jackson dies of his wounds after an infection sets in.

Timeline Number: 4163
Timeline Name: Continental Congress Collapses.
Date: 7-31-1813
Event:
A so-called “citizens’ militia” of Tennessee settlers arrives at Fort Nashboro with Andrew Jackson at its head and demands to parley with the garrison commander. The fort’s defenders respond with a volley of musket fire, killing a dozen settlers and gravely wounding Andrew Jackson.

Timeline Number: 4163
Timeline Name: Continental Congress Collapses.
Date: 3-5-1811
Event:
Taking advantage of the overthrow of Spain’s King Charles IV, the Mexican independentistas publish the “Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of North America.” The text reveals the influence of the British colonial expatriates in the rebel movement: much of it is copied from the never-ratified Philadelphia Declaration of 1776. Moreover, although ostensibly a proclamation of Mexico’s reasons for seeking independence, the document, beginning with its title, is worded to imply support for the independence of Britain’s North American holdings as well.

Timeline Number: 4163
Timeline Name: Continental Congress Collapses.
Date: 9-16-1810
Event:
Event Date: 09-16-1810 Political dissidents in Mexico proclaim the colony’s independence from Spain. Armed conflict immediately erupts between the would-be independentistas and royalist forces loyal to Madrid.

It is subsequently learned that expatriate American colonials, among them James Madison and Aaron Burr, have played an active role in encouraging the independence movement. This discovery will lead Britain to offer aid to Spain in suppressing the rebellion.

Timeline Number: 4262
Timeline Name:
Date: 6-22-1955
Event:
At President Eisenhower’s request, NASA administrator Thomas Keith Glennan and Werner von Braun meet with military rocket experts. Among the military’s representatives are several of von Braun’s old colleagues from the V-2 era, including Walter Dornberger and Dr. Alexander Lippisch, designer of the Messerschmitt 163 rocket plane. Despite their Nazi pasts, or perhaps partly because of them, they have been welcomed into America’s Cold War military establishment, as von Braun himself has been embraced by NASA.

The meeting is the start of NASA-DOD collaboration on development of the booster and glider components of the Dyna-Soar.

Timeline Number: 4262
Timeline Name:
Date: 6-22-1955
Event:
At President Eisenhower’s request, NASA administrator Thomas Keith Glennan and Werner von Braun meet with military rocket experts. Among the military’s representatives are several of von Braun’s old colleagues from the V-2 era, including Walter Dornberger and Dr. Alexander Lippisch, designer of the Messerschmitt 163 rocket plane. Deapite their Nazi pasts, or perhaps parttly because of them, tbhey have been welcomed into America’s Cold War military establishment, as von Braun himself has been embraced by NASA.

The meeting is the start of NASA-DOD collaboration on development of the booster and glider components of the Dyna-Soar.

Timeline Number: 4262
Timeline Name:
Date: 3-15-1955
Event:
Congress appropriates $1.3 billion for development of a manned suborbital fighter-bomber, nicknamed the “Dyna-Soar.” The craft is designed as a three-stage vehicle, a hypersonic aerodynamic glider atop by a powerful two-stage rocket, which will accelerate the glider to operational velocity.

The program is controversial, because neither the glider nor the booster has yet been developed. However, initial plans call for the use of an upgraded version of the booster used to throw MOUSE into orbit; the upgraded missile is dubbed Colossus.

Timeline Number: 4262
Timeline Name:
Date: 7-1-1957
Event:
The International Geophysical Year begins. IGY, proposed in 1950, is seen as encompassing an international effort to use modern technology to study Earth’s physical systems, including its geology, magnetic field and atmosphere. Toward that end, high-altitude balloons, planes and sounding rockets are to be equipped with top-of-the-line instruments and sent into the upper atmosphere to conduct measurements.

Timeline Number: 4262
Timeline Name:
Date: 2-8-1955
Event:
President Eisenhower summons NASA administrator Glennan and chief agency scientist Werner von Braun to the White House for an urgent meeting.

The President reveals what the CIA has shown him regarding the Soviets’ new missile capabilities and informs Glennan and von Braun that for the time being, any further space efforts will have to take a back seat to closing the “missile gap” with the Soviets.

Dr. Glennan objects, pointing out that America’s success in space has significant political value. He invites Eisenhower to consider the black eye the U.S. might have suffered if the Soviets had been first into orbit. The President acknowledges the point, but goes on: “None of that matters now, Dr. Glennan. We won the race into space, and the world knows it. Now we must consider more practical matters.” When Glennan attempts to say that the space race may not be over, Eisenhower cuts him off and ends the meeting.

Afterward, a fuming Glennan is consoled by Werner von Braun: “The President will come around, and if he doesn’t, his successor may.” The rocket engineer observes that Eisenhower’s fixation on building bigger, more powerful missiles to throw at the Soviet Union may actually work in NASA’s favor in the long run, by encouraging the advancement of rocket technology which can eventually be applied to space missions.

Timeline Number: 4262
Timeline Name:
Date: 1-31-1955
Event:
The CIA submits to the White House intelligence on recent Soviet tests of a massive intercontinental ballistic missile more powerful than anything in the U.S. arsenal.

Timeline Number: 4262
Timeline Name:
Date: 7-1-1957
Event:
The International Geophysical Year begins. IGY, proposed in 1950, is seen as encompassing an international effort to use modern technology to study Earth’s physical systems, including its geology, magnetic field and atmosphere. Toward that end, high-altitude balloons, planes and sounding rockets are to be equipped with top-of-the-line instruments and sent into the upper atmosphere to conduct measurements.

Timeline Number: 4262
Timeline Name:
Date: 2-8-1955
Event:
Event Date: 02-08-1955 President Eisenhower summons NASA administrator Glennan and chief agency scientist Werner von Braun to the White House for an urgent meeting.

The President reveals what the CIA has shown him regarding the Soviets’ new missile capabilities and informs Glennan and von Braun that for the time being, any further space efforts will have to take a back seat to closing the “missile gap” with the Soviets.

Dr. Glennan objects, pointing out that America’s success in space has significant political value. He invites Eisenhower to consider the black eye the U.S. might have suffered if the Soviets had been first into orbit. The President acknowledges the point, but goes on: “None of that matters now, Dr. Glennan. We won the race into space, and the world knows it. Now we must consider more practical matters.” When Glennan attempts to say that the space race may not be over, Eisenhower cuts him off and ends the meeting.

Afterward, a fuming Glennan is consoled by Werner von Braun: “The President will come around, and if he doesn’t, his successor may.” The rocket engineer observes that Eisenhower’s fixation on building bigger, more powerful missiles to throw at the Soviet Union may actually work in NASA’s favor in the long run, by encouraging the advancement of rocket technology which can eventually be applied to space missions.

Timeline Number: 4262
Timeline Name:
Date: 1-30-1955
Event:
The CIA submits to the White House intelligence on recent Soviet tests of a massive intercontinental ballistic missile more powerful than anything in the U.S. arsenal.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 5-29-1978
Event:
Mohammed Khan’s “Free Afghan Army” begins receiving U.S. arms and other supplies, smuggled in through Pakistan with the acquiescence of that country’s military ruler, General Mohammed Zia ul-Haq.

Efforts to conceal U.S. support for the Afghan rebels are deliberately half-hearted. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger intends the Soviets to get the message that the U.S. will not passively accept Communist control of Afghanistan.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 5-1-1978
Event:
Mohammed Taraki declares himself president and prime minister of the newly established “Democratic Republic of Afghanistan” and general secretary of the PDPA.

In the U.S., at an emergency meeting of the National Security Council, CIA Director George H. W. Bush urges President Rockefeller to lend “all support possible, as fast as possible,” to the fledgling insurgency of deposed President Khan.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 4-27-1978
Event:
Afghan president Mohammed Daoud Khan is overthrown in a coup organized by Mohammed Taraki, who has eluded Khan’s hit squads. Khan flees into the Afghan countryside, planning to mount a countercoup with the aid of military forces loyal to him.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 4-19-1978
Event:
In Afghanistan, prominent leftist Mir Akhbar Khyber is killed on orders from the country’s president, Mohammed Daoud Khan. Fearing a Communist coup in the aftermath of the murder, President Khan orders the assassination of additional leaders of the country’s Communist party, the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan. Among those targeted are Mohammed Taraki, Hafizullah Amin and Babrak Karmal.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 1-20-1980
Event:
Ronald W. Reagan, former governor of California, announces he will seek the Republican nomination for president, challenging Rockefeller.

It is Reagan’s third try for the White House, following a “dry run” effort in 1968 which ended after two months and his much stronger challenge to Rockefeller in the 1976 GOP primaries. At the press conference he calls to announce his candidacy, Reagan asserts that the Iran crisis and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, which has resulted in the overthrow of its government and the installation in Kabul of a puppet regime under Babrak Karmal, indicates the need for “a stronger hand at the helm of the ship of state.”

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 1-2-1980
Event:
CIA Director Bush presents President Rockefeller with an updated plan for the rescue of the Tehran embassy hostages. The operation is dubbed Operation Eagle Talon.

The President remains apprehensive about the scheme. However, as the hostage situation has dragged on, the national mood has begun to turn ugly as the public increasingly wonders why superpower America seems powerless to act against third-world Iran. Rockefeller signs off on the Bush plan, but warns that if it fails, the U.S. may have no choice but to go to war. “Even the Nazis didn’t dare kidnap our diplomats as the Iranians have done,” he observes. “If we allow the Iranians to do it, we risk losing face all over the world.”

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 12-22-1979
Event:
The President issues an executive order extending the freeze on Iranian assets to those held by overseas subsidiaries of U.S. firms. 50,000 Soviet troops invade Afghanistan.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 12-21-1979
Event:
President Rockefeller severs diplomatic relations with Iran after negotiations to free the Tehran embassy hostages fail. Although he remains concerned about the workability of a rescue attempt, he now believes he may be forced to go ahead with one despite the risks. He has concluded that the Khomeini regime is not serious about finding a peaceful solution to the crisis.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 1-21-1979
Event:
President Rockefeller severs diplomatic relations with Iran after negotiations to free the Tehran embassy hostages fail. Although he remains concerned about the workability of a rescue attempt, he now believes he may be forced to go ahead with one despite the risks. He has concluded that the Khomeini regime is not serious about finding a peaceful solution to the crisis.

Timeline Number: 2537
Timeline Name: Zheng He Reaches Mexico
Date: 1-10-1440
Event:
Thousands of Chinese migrated to North America to colonized the land as rich lands were plentiful. Settlements appeared throughout the west coast and trade with native populations flourished. The land was also used as a place of exile by Ming judicial court. Many criminals were sent to serve their sentences in North America.

Timeline Number: 2537
Timeline Name: Zheng He Reaches Mexico
Date: 5-1-1435
Event:
Buddhism was accepted and embraced by various populations throught out the Aztec Empire. The popularity of Buddhism had resulted the waning influence of the Aztec high priests. Blood sacrifices was seen as barbaric and inhumane and thus abandoned. Native converts helped the construction of Buddhist monasteries in their communities.

Timeline Number: 4211
Timeline Name: Truman Pardons Hiss II: Stormy Weather
Date: 1-18-1972
Event:
Minnesota Senator Hubert H. Humphrey (who had returned to the Senate in 1970 by winning the seat of retiring incumbent Eugene McCarthy), announces that he will run again for the presidency.

Timeline Number: 4211
Timeline Name: Truman Pardons Hiss II: Stormy Weather
Date: 1-12-1972
Event:
South Dakota Senator George S. McGovern announces he will seek the Democratic presidential nomination.

McGovern has emerged as an outspoken critic of both the occupation of Cuba and the war in Southeast Asia. His entry into the race signals that the peace movement is gaining in influence, at least within the Democratic Party.

Timeline Number: 4211
Timeline Name: Truman Pardons Hiss II: Stormy Weather
Date: 11-30-1971
Event:
Sen. Edmund S. Muskie announces his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination.

The Maine senator is favored by the Democratic Party establishment, which sees him as liberal enough to hold on to the party’s left wing but not so far left that he will frighten away moderate voters. He had been Hubert Humphrey’s vice-presidential candidate in Humphrey’s unsuccessful 1968 run for the presidency.

Timeline Number: 2830
Timeline Name: Turkish Caesar
Date: 7-2-1253
Event:
Urghan established a new state which comprised Hungary, Romania and parts of Serbia and Bulgaria. The state was known as the Urghanid Khanate named after Urghan. He chose the city of Buda as capital of his domain.

Timeline Number: 2830
Timeline Name: Turkish Caesar
Date: 6-14-1253
Event:
Urghan's army had launched an offensive into the Balkans and overrun Romania, eastern half of Serbia and northern Bulgaria. A detachment of Urghan's army had even reached the very walls of Constantinople before returning with plunder and slaves. The Byzantines was forced to sign a peace treaty with the Mongols and agreed to pay tributes annually.

Timeline Number: 2830
Timeline Name: Turkish Caesar
Date: 3-23-1253
Event:
The news of Hungary being overrun by the Mongols had reached Constantinople. Byzantine general of Armenian descent, Marcus Dzovagus, was dispatched with an army 80,000 infantry and cavalry to retake Hungary. However the army was ambushed and decimated by the Mongols. 20,000 was taken prisoner and general Dzovagus was taken to Urghan's headquarters in Hungary where he entered the service of the Mongol leader.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 12-15-1979
Event:
The Shah leaves the United States, bound for Egypt, where President Anwar Sadat has agreed to grant him asylum.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 12-12-1979
Event:
CIA Director Bush presents a preliminary hostage rescue plan to President Rockefeller. It involves taking advantage of Iranian CIA assets who would impersonate agents of the regime and inform the student militants holding the Tehran embassy that a U.S. military strike and that they were going to “transfer” the captives to an undisclosed safe location. Once the hostages had been handed over, these pro-U.S. Iranians would then smuggle them to a pickup point on the outskirts of the city, where they would be picked up by U.S. helicopters and flown to safety.

The President is interested, but questions whether any Iranians can really be trusted to carry out their end of such a plan and whether American choppers can penetrate to the edge of Iran’s capital, pick up the hostages and escape successfully. Director Bush assures him that the plan can be made to work, but says he will need several weeks at least to flesh it out fully and put the necessary resources in place.

Lacking any better options, President Rockefeller gives Bush the go-ahead.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 4-18-1991
Event:
Gold prices rise to new highs following passage of the Monetary Standard Act. Thanks to his insider tip, James Sinclair in particular stands to make a killing.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 4-18-1991
Event:
Gold prices rise to new highs following passage opf the Monetary Standard Act. Thanks to his insider information, James Sinclair in particular stands to make a killing.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 4-10-1991
Event:
Wealthy Connecticut-based investor James Sinclair is tipped off by friends in Washington that President Kemp plans to reintroduce his legislation returning the U.S. to the gold standard, and that Congress is likely to pass it this time.

Armed with this information, Sinclair, who has emerged as the number-one figure among the gold speculators supporting Kemp’s idea, orders his operatives to purchase as much in the way of gold and gold-backed securities as they can prior to the President’s move.

Timeline Number: 3279
Timeline Name: June 1941 German Assault On U.S.
Date: 5-7-1946
Event:
Germany surrenders.

With Berlin destroyed and heavily contaminated with radioactive fallout, the city of Bonn is declared the country’s provisional capital. Just what sort of government ill sit there remains unclear, however. Already the victorious Allies have begun to draw up lists of war criminals who are to be shot on sight or placed under arrest. Hitler, whose baked body has been found by American troops, is not among them; neither is Heinrich Himmler, who had swallowed poison, nor Hermann Goering, who had suffered a stroke after the nuclear bombing of Nuremberg and now lies comatose in a field hospital, not expected to survive. Several other top Nazi officials, including Joseph Goebbels and Adolf Eichmann, remain at large, as does the notorious Dr. Joseph Mengele, whose sadistic medical experiments on concentration-cap inmates are now coming to light.

Timeline Number: 3279
Timeline Name: June 1941 German Assault On U.S.
Date: 5-2-1946
Event:
Berlin, already heavily damaged by Allied bombing raids, is obliterated by a second atomic bomb. 75,000 people die and tens of thousands more are injured. Hitler, hiding in an underground bunker, is roasted alive along with his mistress Eva Braun and a contingent of bodyguards as the shelter is transformed into an oven by the nuclear blast.

Timeline Number: 3279
Timeline Name: June 1941 German Assault On U.S.
Date: 4-30-1946
Event:
Nuremberg is incinerated by a U.S. nuclear weapon. 90,000 people are killed.

Timeline Number: 3279
Timeline Name: June 1941 German Assault On U.S.
Date: 4-2-1946
Event:
An atomic bomb based on the implosion principle is successfully tested at Alamogordo, New Mexico. Scientists will estimate its explosive power as equal to that of 15,000 tons of TNT, considerably greater than many of them had expected.

Prior to the test, Enrico Fermi offers a grim wager on the possibility that the explosion’s temperature will be high enough to ignite the Earth’s atmosphere in a global chain reaction. There are no takers.

Timeline Number: 3279
Timeline Name: June 1941 German Assault On U.S.
Date: 2-28-1946
Event:
As a force of 100,000 Allied troops forces its way through southern Germany, they are bombarded by artillery, resulting in thousands of deaths.

A handful of the shells used are of an unfamiliar type, bursting high overhead to release a fine mist which initially seems harmless. Within hours, however, soldiers exposed to it begin to grow ill, sparking rumors that the Nazis have used germs or chemical weapons. As the victims’ symptoms progress, however, several military doctors recognize them as characteristics of overexposure to radiation. There is no effective treatment; over 15,000 will die within the next few weeks, and thousands more will be incapacitated.

Timeline Number: 3279
Timeline Name: June 1941 German Assault On U.S.
Date: 2-2-1946
Event:
As the Wehrmacht desperately struggles to hold back the Allied advance across Europe, Werner Heinsenberg’s team receives orders to dismantle rtheir reactor facility and move it further east, to an alternate site in Tubingen.

Dismantling the reactor is a diffcult and dangerous affair. The scientists call on the SS for assistance, and ton Hitler’s sinister secret police provide them with a supply of “expendable” laborers drawn from Germany’s concentration camps. Particular care will be taken in packing up the small number of crude radiation munitions prepared since the pile reached criticality in November.

Also under orders to prepare for relocation is the Nordhausen V-2 rocket facility, where camp labor drawn from the nearby Dora concentration camp has been in use for several years.

Timeline Number: 3279
Timeline Name: June 1941 German Assault On U.S.
Date: 5-5-1945
Event:
The long-anticipated Allied invasion of Europe codenamed Operation Overlord begins with landings in Normandy.

Timeline Number: 3279
Timeline Name: June 1941 German Assault On U.S.
Date: 4-12-1945
Event:
President Franklin D. Roosevelt dies in Warm Springs, Georgia, while on holiday. Vice-President Henry Wallace is sworn in as the 33rd President of the United States.

Two hours after his swearing-in, President Wallace receives a phone call from War Secretary Henry L. Stimson, asking him to come to a meeting at the War Department. Arriving at the meeting, Wallace finds Stimson, General Leslie R. Groves, and physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer waiting for him, and learns from them for the first time of the existence of the Columbia Project.

Wallace is stunned. He believes that the atomic bomb, if it can actually be made to work--something still uncertain, as the scientists infrom him they are at least six months from being able to construct and test a prototype at their Los Alamos facility in New Mexico.

Timeline Number: 3279
Timeline Name: June 1941 German Assault On U.S.
Date: 11-7-1944
Event:
President Franklin D. Roosevelt is elected to an unprecedented fourth term, with Henry Wallace continuing as Vice-President.

Timeline Number: 3279
Timeline Name: June 1941 German Assault On U.S.
Date: 7-21-1944
Event:
As expected, FDR is renominated for president. In his acceptance speech, he reveals he will keep Henry Wallace on the ticket. Privately, the President has reservations about Wallace in the wake of what the media are now calling his “Dear Guru” letters to Roerich, but the Vice-President’s wartime service has won him a greatly increased political following; in addition, replacing him would make a joke of the Roosevelt campaign’s “Don’t Change Horses in Midstream” slogan.

Timeline Number: 3279
Timeline Name: June 1941 German Assault On U.S.
Date: 7-19-1944
Event:
The Democratic National Convention opens at Chicago Stadium, Chicago. No one doubts that FDR, who has chosen to run for yet another term on the slogan “Don’t Change Horses in Midstream,” will be the presidential nominee. There is serious speculation, however, that he will dump Vice-President Henry Wallace from the ticket; one possible replacement is Missouri Sen. Harry Truman. Wallace has distinguished himself during America’s grim days fighting off the Nazi and Soviet invaders, but questions have been raised about his association with an eccentric Eastern cult while serving as Agriculture Secretary in the thirties. The Chicago Tribune and other Hearst newspapers have been publishing letters written by Wallace to cult leader Nicholas Roerich, a Russian émigré which express admiration for Roerich and appear to detail political favors the then Secretary of Agriculture had done for him.

Timeline Number: 3279
Timeline Name: June 1941 German Assault On U.S.
Date: 6-28-1944
Event:
New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey receives the Republicaan nomination for president. Ohio’s Governor John Bricker receives the vice-presidential slot.

Despite all the usual festivities, gloom hangs over the GOP gathering. With a war on and turning decisively in America’s favor under Roosevelt’s leadership, there is a sense that FDR’s re-election is inevitable no matter what Republicans say or do. Matters will not be helped by FDR’s caustic public assessment of the short, dapper Dewey as looking like “the little man on the wedding cake.” Although unfair, the image will quickly take hold with the public.

Timeline Number: 3279
Timeline Name: June 1941 German Assault On U.S.
Date: 6-26-1944
Event:
The Republican National Convention opens in Chicago. Flags are everywhere, as are slogans andother reminders of the city’s brief stint as the U.S. capital. The city’s wartime role has made it even more important than it already was in U.S. politics. This year, both parties will hold their conventions there.

Timeline Number: 4271
Timeline Name:
Date: 10-8-2007
Event:
The Cleveland Indians win Game 4 of the ALDS 6-4 over the New York Yankees, winning the series 3 games to 1. The Yankees’ title drought is now a staggering 101 years. Manager Willie Randolph is fired immediately after the game ends.

Timeline Number: 4271
Timeline Name:
Date: 10-5-2007
Event:
A strange occurrence in Game 2 of the American League Division Series: with the New York Yankees leading the host Cleveland Indians 1-0 in the bottom of the eighth inning, a swarm of bugs known as midges invade Jacobs Field, forcing several Yankee players to have to be sprayed with bug spray. Despite the efforts, many of the bugs still stick to rookie pitcher Joba Chamberlain, distracting him enough for him to throw two wild pitches in the inning, the second allowing the Indians to tie the game at 1. Cleveland will win 2-1 in the eleventh inning. The Curse of Hal Chase has found a strange way to resurrect itself to bring the Yankees down again.

Timeline Number: 4271
Timeline Name:
Date: 9-26-2007
Event:
The New York Yankees clinch a berth in the American League playoffs with a 3-1 win over the Tampa Bay Devil Rays. However, the Yankees will have to settle for the Wild Card, as the Boston Red Sox will win the AL East by two games.

Timeline Number: 4271
Timeline Name:
Date: 7-4-2007
Event:
With the Yankees at 40-42 and 11.5 games back of the Boston Red Sox for the AL East lead, George Steinbrenner issues a statement hinting that if the Yankees don’t make the playoffs, manager Willie Randolph will not return next season.

Timeline Number: 4271
Timeline Name:
Date: 10-7-2006
Event:
Make it 100 years since the New York Yankees’ only World Series title, as they lose again in the American League Division Series. The Yankees had won Game 1 over the Detroit Tigers 8-4 four days ago, but the Tigers won the next three, including an 8-3 win over the Yankees tonight. The Tigers will go on to clinch the AL pennant, but will lose the World Series to the St. Louis Cardinals.

Timeline Number: 4271
Timeline Name:
Date: 10-10-2005
Event:
The Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim defeat the New York Yankees 5-3 in Game 5 of the American League Division Series. For the Yankees, it’s now 99 years since their last (and only) world title.

Timeline Number: 4271
Timeline Name:
Date: 10-27-2004
Event:
The Boston Red Sox defeat the St. Louis Cardinals 3-0 in Game 4 of the World Series, completing a four-game sweep. After going 50 years between world titles in 1949 and 1999, it has taken the Red Sox only five years this time around.

Timeline Number: 4271
Timeline Name:
Date: 10-18-2004
Event:
(This is a divergence from timeline 2131, “New York Highlanders.”) As the clock passes midnight, the New York Yankees are still down 4-3 to the Boston Red Sox in the bottom of the ninth inning of Game 4 of the American League Championship Series. The Yanks see a glimmer of hope as Boston Red Sox pitcher Keith Foulke walks shortstop Derek Jeter to lead off the bottom of the ninth inning. Third baseman Alex Rodriguez comes up, and hits a ball up the middle…only for it to be fielded by Red Sox second baseman Pokey Reese, who tosses it to shortstop Orlando Cabrera to retire Jeter. Cabrera then throws to first, retiring Rodriguez. Gary Sheffield then pops out to center fielder Johnny Damon, ending the game. The Red Sox win 4-3, and have swept the four-game series. The Yankees have now gone 98 years since their last world title in 1906. The Curse of Hal Chase, in place since the man it was named for threw the 1910 World Series, lives on.

Timeline Number: 4270
Timeline Name:
Date: 9-15-1986
Event:
The USFL standings after Week 1 are as follows: Atlantic Division – Baltimore Stars (1-0), Jacksonville Bulls (1-0), New Jersey Generals (1-0), Orlando Renegades (0-1); Southern Division – Memphis Showboats (1-0), Birmingham Stallions (0-1), Houston Gamblers (0-1), Tampa Bay Bandits (0-1); Pacific Division – Los Angeles Express (1-0), Oakland Invaders (1-0), Arizona Outlaws (0-1), Portland Breakers (0-1). The first week’s attendance is encouraging, with 72,336 fans attending the Gamblers-Bulls game, 48,715 at the Outlaws-Generals game, 31,698 at the Rose Bowl for the Renegades-Express, 59,663 at the Showboats-Stallions game, 37,292 at the Bandits-Stars game, and 37,289 for the Breakers-Invaders game. The USFL's first fall campaign has started off well, and will provide momentum for the rest of the season.

Timeline Number: 4270
Timeline Name:
Date: 9-14-1986
Event:
After a fourteen-month layoff, the USFL returns to the field with a full slate of games. In Baltimore, the two-time defending champion Stars successfully integrate their Canadian Football League imports – wide receivers Merv Fernandez and Jim Sandusky – into their offense, which also features running backs Kelvin Bryant and Curtis Bledsoe, en route to a 34-21 win over the Tampa Bay Bandits. In Birmingham, the Stallions lose to the Memphis Showboats 24-10, ruining the debut of running back Bo Jackson with the Stallions. In Jacksonville, the Bulls, with new acquisitions Doug Williams and Trumaine Johnson, ride to a 43-39 win over the Houston Gamblers. At the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, the Los Angeles Express warm to their new home with a 28-0 romp over the Orlando Renegades, who are unable to score despite new quarterback John Reaves. In Oakland, the Invaders stake to a 38-7 win over the Portland Breakers behind two touchdown catches by Anthony Carter. At Shea Stadium, the New Jersey Generals dominate behind a 242-yard and three touchdown day by Herschel Walker on their way to a 31-14 win over the Arizona Outlaws.

Timeline Number: 4270
Timeline Name:
Date: 9-13-1986
Event:
CONTRIBUTOR’S NOTE: This is “The USFL Survives: 1986 Season.” The United States Football League, fresh off a legal victory over the National Football League, is set to start its first fall season tomorrow with six games featuring its twelve surviving franchises. There will be no Monday games this week, or during any week of the season to avoid conflict with the NFL’s Monday Night Football. After breaking camp twelve days ago, the USFL believes itself to be ready to face the challenges of playing directly against the NFL. However, it will be the public who determines whether the USFL made the right decision.

Timeline Number: 4211
Timeline Name: Truman Pardons Hiss II: Stormy Weather
Date: 9-20-1970
Event:
With demonstrators and National Guard troops still facing off on the OSU-Columbus campus, Guard troops read the assembled protesters a formal order to disperse or face arrest. When the protesters do not back down, the Guard troops advance on them. The student demonstrators retreat until they find themselves boxed in by a chain-link fence, at which point some of them begin moving forward, attempting to get out of the cul-de-sac. Several Guardsmen, apparently interpreting the students’ forward motion as the start of an attack, fire their weapons into the crowd.

Chaos ensues. The crowd surges forward as the demonstrators, many of whom now fear they have been herded into a trap to be shot down en masse, try to break out. The opposing Guardsmen, none of whom have been trained in riot control, panic and begin firing indiscriminately. Eight students are killed and several dozen injured; of the slain, two are found to have simply been in the wrong place at the wrong time, rather than active participants in the protest. Two Guardsmen are also killed, one apparently by fire from another Guardsman’s rifle, and several others are hurt.

Timeline Number: 4211
Timeline Name: Truman Pardons Hiss II: Stormy Weather
Date: 9-17-1970
Event:
Tensions at OSU-Columbus escalate when, just prior to the arrival of National Guard troops requested by Mayor Sensenbrenner, the campus Reserve Officer Training Corps erupts in flames. Attempts to put out the blaze are hampered by demonstrators, who throw rocks and bottles at police and firemen trying to extinguish it.

When the Guard troops arrive, they set up headquarters on campus and make numerous arrests, employing tear gas and bayonets on the crowd. One student is injured by a bayonet.

Timeline Number: 4211
Timeline Name: Truman Pardons Hiss II: Stormy Weather
Date: 9-16-1970
Event:
A demonstration against the Vietnam War and in favor of emergency aid to North Vietnam at Ohio State University’s main campus in Columbus, Ohio swells to several thousand people. After several incidents in which demonstrators yell obscenities at campus and local police called in to “maintain order,” Columbus’s mayor Maynard E. Sensenbrenner calls for the assistance of the National Guard.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 9-4-1970
Event:
As word of the U.S. opposition to disaster relief for North Vietnam spreads, large-scale anti-American rioting erupts in London, Paris, Bonn and Madrid. “Spontaneous” protests are also held in a number of Eastern European capitals, including East Berlin.

In the U.S., Father Robert Drinan, running for Congress in Massachusetts, denounces the “inhumane intransigence” of the Nixon Administration before a large crowd. Drinan’s words make the evening news in Boston and are picked up by nationwide TV, prompting a furious Richard Nixon to ask if there isn’t some way to get the Vatican to “muzzle that pinko priest.”

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 9-1-1970
Event:
Reports reach Washington that the NVA is withdrawing troops across the border with South Vietnam to combat growing unrest in the North Vietnamese countryside resulting from the food and fuel shortages caused by the Operation Linebacker dike bombings. The intel also mentions that the contamination of water supplies by debris, human and animal waste, and vast numbers of human bodies has led to outbreaks of typhus.

United Nations Secretary General U Thant calls for immediate UN aid to the stricken country. At the urging of President Nixon, however, U.S. ambassador Charles W. Yost demands that Hanoi first agree to “end all hostilities against the legitimate government of South Vietnam and withdraw its support for anti-government insurgents attempting top overthrow that government.” Otherwise, Yost continues, relaying his boss’s thinking, “the United Nations will simply be providing Communist aggressors with the means to continue their aggression against the free people of South Vietnam.” Ambassador Yost makes clear that the United States will “vigorously oppose” any United Nations disaster relief to North Vietnam unless the Nixon Administration’s conditions are met.

Timeline Number: 2982
Timeline Name: Arena Football In Boston Part 2
Date: 10-26-2007
Event:
Looking to strengthen their offense for 2008 after a disappointing 2007 season, the Boston Blizzard take former Nashville Kats wide receiver Kenny Higgins with their first pick in the 2007 Arena League dispersal draft.

Timeline Number: 2982
Timeline Name: Arena Football In Boston Part 2
Date: 8-4-2007
Event:
Seeking to squelch the retirement rumors,a Torpedoes team spokesman tells the Baltimore Sun that the franchise intends to renew C.J. Leak's contract for the 2008 Arena League season.

Timeline Number: 2982
Timeline Name: Arena Football In Boston Part 2
Date: 7-29-2007
Event:
The Baltimore Torpedoes' historic Arena League playoff run comes to an embarrassing end with a 56-29 drubbing by the San Jose Sabercats in Arena Bowl 21.C.J. Leak is forced to leave the game midway through the second quarter with a separated shoulder;some of his post-game interview comments prompt rumors that he may retire.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 11-30-1932
Event:
This timeline will continue with "Cox Defeats Harding II: War for the East."

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 11-8-1932
Event:
The Presidential Election proves to be an easy win for former Secretary of State Cordell Hull. The recession along with the presidential gridlock with Congress had eroded public support of the once popular Hoover Administration. Hull takes 352 Electoral Votes and 55.4% of the Popular Vote, while Johnson wins 180 Electoral Votes and 42.9% of the Popular Vote. Hull’s win gives some coattails to the entire Democratic slate as well. The Democrats pick up three more Senate seats, whereas the GOP picks up only one. In the House, the Democrats lose several seats, but still narrowly control the chamber. President Hoover, listening to the results at his vacation home in Palo Alto, looks to his wife Lou and asks her one word, “Why?”

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 8-1-1932
Event:
Harry Truman, a former bank teller, bids for the First National Bank of Kansas City. Wanting to run a more legitimate business, Truman wins the bidding and becomes President of the bank. The first thing Truman does is register the bank once again with the National Banking Registry, an agency created by the Hoover Administration. Truman will perform his duties as President of the First National Bank with efficiency and gain the respect of the community

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 7-16-1932
Event:
President Hoover’s hand picked successor is nominated by the Republican National Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Senator Hiram Johnson of California, a strident New Deal Republican, is nominated on the 3rd Ballot, defeating the choice of conservative Republicans, former Senator Joseph France of Maryland. Senator Johnson is paired with Senate Minority leader Charles Curtis of Kansas. The selection of Senator Curtis, who has lost a great deal of his cockiness since the GOP election disaster in 1930, was made to appease conservative Republicans, but many of them upset over President Hoover’s liberal spending, have already changed allegiance to Cordell Hull’s campaign.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 6-29-1932
Event:
: Former Secretary of State Cordell Hull is nominated for President of the United States on the 21st Ballot. Governor James M. Curley of Massachusetts is selected for Vice-President. Despite his record as a felon and his heavy drinking, Curley is needed to keep union and Catholic support behind the Conservative southerner Hull. Senator Franklin Roosevelt and House Majority Leader John Garner seemed to have spent too much time attacking each other, and not enough focusing on Hull’s stealth campaign. The Democratic ticket of Hull-Curley is seen as a powerful one, especially against the Republicans in a time of economic peril.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 6-28-1932
Event:
The Democratic Convention opens to a rousing address by Senator Alban Barkley of Kentucky slamming President Hoover’s economic policies as, “A coin with one side Socialist and the other side Republican. To be honest, I don’t know which side is worse.” Barkley ends the speech by declaring, “On Election Day, we’re gonna run Hoover’s gang outa town and make these Republicans like it.” The speech is so well received that many at the convention were expecting a delegate stampede to Barkley for President. However, the Kentucky Senator chooses not to accept a draft, he has his eyes on the spot of Senate Majority Leader. The Democrats adopt a platform extolling low taxes and fighting the recession, as well as denouncing the Hoover Administration. The balloting for president proves to be fruitless for the first several ballots. On the 17th Ballot, Newton baker decided to drop out and release his delegates to his old friend from the Cox Administration, Cordell Hull. Hull led for the next several ballots. McAdoo, bowing to reality, also ended his long shot campaign for the Oval Office. “It all comes down to the three real contenders,” a young radio announcer named Edward Murrow declared at the end of the day, “Tomorrow, the fate of a party, and unless a remarkable change occurs in our economic fortunes, of a nation, lies in the final ballot at this great battle of democracy known as the party convention.”

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 6-27-1932
Event:
The Democratic National Convention opens in Chicago, Illinois. Although the delegates are united in their opposition to the big spending ways of President Hoover, they are not so united in a presidential candidate. Currently, six candidates have emerged as “front-runners” for the nomination: 1. House Majority Leader and 1928 Presidential nominee John Nance Garner (TX) 2. Senate Majority Whip Franklin D. Roosevelt (NY) 3. Former Secretary of State Cordell Hull (TN) 4. Senator William McAdoo (CA) 5. Governor Alfred E. Smith (NY) 6. Cleveland Mayor and former Secretary of War Newton Baker (OH) The balloting of the first day proves to be of little importance. Garner dominates the first four ballots, but begins to dwindle by the 5th Ballot. Roosevelt, with solid support from New York’s delegation, is able to knock Governor Smith out of the running. William Randolph Hearst, the powerful newspaper editor, is behind Senator McAdoo. The only chance Roosevelt has to take the nomination is to persuade Hearst to join his side. The odds of that seem quite slim as the convention draws to a close.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 10-10-1931
Event:
Famed aviator Charles Lindbergh appeals to President Hoover not to cut air mail services and the United States Air Force. “We can not abandon the skies,” Lindbergh tells the House Budget Committee, “No matter what the costs.” President Hoover, usually known for his serious demeanor, quips to the press, “Airmen are grown boys, why can’t they just have one plane and learn to share it?” Hoover’s cuts will be added to the budget.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 9-16-1931
Event:
In response to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, President Hoover and Secretary of State Henry Stimson declare the Hoover Doctrine. This doctrine declares that neither the United States nor any democracy will recognize any territory taken by one nation against the will of another nation. This doctrine means little coming from a president who is gutting the defense budget, but in the future it will have major effects on American foreign policy.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 9-16-1931
Event:
The conservative Democratic House of Representatives passes yet another tax cut for American businessmen. With the oil industry budding in Texas, Majority Leader Garner hopes to bring some government help to his own state, although he opposes such help everywhere else. President Hoover is now forced to cut military spending to try to balance the budget. This decision will prove to be a fateful one.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 5-3-1931
Event:
The greatest program of the Second New Deal is begun today. A massive dam is begun on the Colorado River. This massive public works program will be named Hoover Dam, after the President who gave it the funds to be built.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 1-10-1931
Event:
The new Congress takes office. To the surprise of the Washington establishment, Senator Roosevelt is elected Senate Majority Whip. After stopping assured income for the elderly, fiscal conservatives in the Democratic Party are looking at the Junior Senator from New York as their candidate for President in 1932. However, most Americans still remember the infidelity of Roosevelt during the 1920s. It seems like the Senate is as far as Roosevelt will be going in the political world.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 11-5-1930
Event:
Due to the failing economy and a lack of public trust in the Republican administration, the Democratic Party wins a landslide in the Congressional Midterm Elections. The Democrats win 11-seats in the Senate, amazing even the incoming Senate Majority Leader Joseph Robinson. The Democrats solidify their lead in the U.S. House, cementing the power of House Majority Leader John Garner over U.S. legislative policy. Among the new Democratic Representatives is Joseph P. Kennedy, Senior. Running as an anti-New Deal Democrat, Kennedy won an easy victory in his very Catholic and very anti-Hoover congressional district.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 10-15-1930
Event:
: The Senate passes several components of President Hoover’s Second New Deal. The public works programs and corporate tax cuts, submitted under the National Recovery Act, pass through the Senate with little opposition. Hoover’s financial security for the elderly package falls through, however. Senator Franklin Roosevelt of New York is able to derail Hoover’s plan to send all Americans ages 65 and older $150 a month with relative ease. Senator Roosevelt decries the plan as, “Socialist security.” Hoover’s Second New Deal has received its first major blow, but a majority of the President’s reform package has passed.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 9-19-1930
Event:
Bowing to public pressure to respond to the Recession of 1930, President Hoover unveils the Second New Deal. This massive relief includes expanded public works projects, financial security for the elderly, and, to appease conservatives, tax cuts for corporations. President Hoover, a firm disciple of the church of balanced budgets, realizes that if all these reforms pass in Congress, major military cuts will need to be made.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 7-4-1930
Event:
“We are marching against unemployment!” declares Socialist Norman Thomas as 30,000 unemployed Americans from the Eastern United States march on Washington to demand relief. President Hoover, seeing the protesters camped out on The Mall, addresses the nation that night over the airwaves. “We must work our way out of the recession,” Hoover tells the nation, “No government intervention can lead to our recovery.” In response to Hoover’s comment about working out of the recession, humorist Will Rogers jokes, “Hoover didn’t tell us where we could find the work.”

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 4-25-1930
Event:
With one of the worst winters in recent memory over, the Hoover Administration now focuses on farm aid, for the recession and a massive “dust bowl” in the Great Plains have left many farmers broke. Ever since the 1860s, the massive cultivation of western land led to major erosion of soil. During the harsh winter the ground froze pausing the dust storms for the time being. President Hoover, always known for seizing the opportunity, uses this crucial time in early spring to introduce sweeping agricultural reform. The Federal Farm Board is established to try to stabilize declining crop prices. $200 million is allotted to be sent to farm originations nationwide. These organizations were expected to use this money to build storehouses for access grain or purchase the grain surplus. The Federal Farm Board is attacked by conservatives in both parties as, “A multi-million dollar handout.”

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 10-30-1929
Event:
Wall Street goes mad today! In response to the “Black Tuesday” arrests, the values of many stocks depreciate. Though the fall is not enough to be considered a “crash” the market takes a considerable dive. Across the nation, citizens rush to their banks to withdraw enough money to make it through, what many see, the beginning of a new recession. In Bedford Falls, New York, newlyweds George and Mary Bailey are almost forced to hand out their honeymoon money to frightened investors at the Bailey Building and Loan. George reminds them that their money is safe under President Hoover’s new banking reforms, and the anxious people leave the old building. “Gee whiz,” George tells Mary, “Thank my guardian angel for President Hoover.” Despite the kind words of Mr. Bailey, the nation is heading into a recession.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 9-29-1929
Event:
Due to the reforms under The Wall Street and Banking Reform Act, a major stock market crash is avoided. However, “Black Tuesday” is marked by several arrests by Treasury Department agents. The agents arrest several Wall Street brokers who have been continuing playing dangerous games on the Stock Market and, in some cases, importing illegal alcohol from Canada to make money on the side. One who is not arrested (but many in New York government felt he should be) was Joseph Patrick Kennedy, a big time Wall Street powerbroker. Kennedy cleaned up his act soon after the government passed the Wall Street reforms. “The power has shifted from Wall Street to Washington,” the elder Kennedy tells his protégé, 15-year old Joseph Kennedy, Jr., “And you Joe will lead this new Washington power struggle.” Joe’s wife wonders which “Joe” she thinks he was talking about.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 9-21-1929
Event:
The House Commerce Committee approves of The Wall Street and Banking Reform Act. All the recommendations of the Chapin Committee are included into this act. The act will pass both houses of Congress with relative ease. Following the debacle of the Voting Rights Act, this victory is seen as especially sweet for the Hoover Administration.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 9-13-1929
Event:
The Chapin Committee testifies before the House Commerce Committee. Secretary of Commerce Roy Chapin tells the committee that all is not well on Wall Street. Secretary Chapin, former Senator Ralph H. Cameron, and several other committee members inform the nation about insider trading, artificial boosting of stocks, and banks playing the stock market with their patrons’ savings. “If these dangers go unnoticed,” Chapin concludes, “Then a major economic disaster is not far off.”

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 5-1-1929
Event:
President Herbert Hoover commemorates May Day by refusing to diplomatically recognize the Soviet Union for a third time in his presidency. “The United States,” Hoover tells the nation in a radio address, “Refuses to recognize any nation, state, or entity which refuses to recognize the individuality and freedoms of mankind. No state which espouses Marxism will be recognized by my government, and no other government should recognize that state which does not believe in the worth of the individual human being.”

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 4-25-1929
Event:
With the Congress wanting to go on recess for a short holiday, the vote is taken for the Voting Rights Act. This idea appears to be too progressive, even for the Republican controlled U.S. senate to pass. With several Western Republicans voting with the Democratic minority, the act narrowly fails. President Hoover has faced his first real legislative setback since the failure of the Interstate Highway Act. Unbeknownst to him or any of the political leadership of the day, there was still a long way for the Hoover Administration to fall.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 4-23-1929
Event:
After a 22-hour duo filibuster, Senators McKeller and Caraway relinquish the floor. Senate Majority Leader Charles Curtis, a firm supporter of the Voting Rights Act, takes the floor. “Gentlemen,” Senator Curtis declares, “I wish to speak to you today not as a Republican or as a man of minority heritage, but as an American voter. This right, the vote, is what gives our republic its meaning. The right to a fair and free election, universal suffrage, is the only thing which separates our republic from the failed republics of Cromwell’s England and Caesar’s Rome.” Curtis then uses a famous quotation, but in an ironic way, “Our government enjoys throwing around the words of Jefferson, ‘All men are created equal.’ We know that is not true. Some are born more wealthy, talented, or intelligent than other men. Some men are born Rockefellers and Carnegies while others are born in tenements and rural shacks. Only one thing makes the men and women of this nation equal: the vote. In the act of casting a ballot and putting it into the ballot box, the Rockefeller is the same as the poor farmer, and the president is the same as the corner shoe shiner.” After delivering a twenty minute address, the usually cold and colorless Senator Curtis ends his speech by simply declaring, “I beg you, vote for this act. Please, remember our republic.”

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 4-22-1929
Event:
Tennessee Senator Kenneth McKeller and Arkansas Senator Thad Caraway begin the expected Democratic filibuster of the Voting Rights Act. The selection of two rather quiet and unknown Senators to lead a filibuster surprises the beltway press. The Republican Washington Post declares, “The Democrats know that they can’t stop this act, so they have decided to offer the opposition two Lilliputian leaders.” However, the eloquence of Senator McKeller amazes even the most hardboiled of reporters. “We do not oppose this because of personal racial bigotries,” Senator McKeller declares, “Our side opposes this act because it infringes on the rights of our sovereign states. The fine line between the rights of states and the affairs of the federal government must not be crossed. Once the line is erased, anarchy is not far away, gentlemen.”

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 4-20-1929
Event:
The Voting Rights Act passes the Senate Committee on Internal Improvements. No one was quite sure what to submit such a bill under. Senate Minority Leader Joseph Robinson declares that he will lead the fight against this act. “Not since the days of the Civil War has such an infringement on the rights of the state’s been inflicted on our nation” Robinson declares on the floor of the Senate.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 4-15-1929
Event:
In what could be seen as a remembrance of Abraham Lincoln’s death, Senator Burton Wheeler (Democrat of Montana) has the honor of submitting the most progressive of all of the Hoover Administration’s reforms: The Voting Rights Act of 1929. This comprehensive voting act outlaws the poll tax, literacy tests, and the grandfather clause.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 4-10-1929
Event:
President Hoover appoints Secretary of Commerce Roy Chapin, a former automotive executive, to head up an investigation of Wall Street. He and a six man panel of union, business, legal, and political leaders are instructed to investigate any and all illegal activists on Wall Street, as well as any possible threats to the nation’s economic security that questionable Wall Street business tactics might cause. The findings of the Chapin Committee will rock the economic foundations of the United States.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 3-4-1929
Event:
President Herbert Clark Hoover is sworn in for a second term as President of the United States. “In America today, we are nearer a final triumph over poverty than is any other land.” These optimistic words seem to have merit. Hoover’s economic policies seem to have both the rich and poor happy. The rich are enjoying an economic expansion, the likes that had not been experienced since before World War I. The poor in America enjoy the stability of public works programs as both a means of employment and the efficiency that New Deal dams, roads, and parks give to their lives. Senate Minority leader Joseph Robinson of Arkansas jokes with President Hoover at the Inaugural Ball, “Mr. President, you don’t understand how unfair your being towards the Democrats! You are the first president in history to have both poverty and wealth going for you!” This balance of power between the haves and have-nots is not to last.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 11-6-1928
Event:
President Herbert Hoover wins a comfortable victory over House Majority Leader John Nance Garner in the Presidential election. The slight turnaround in the economy as well as new success in fighting organized crime are seen as the main reasons Hoover was able to win reelection. Garner’s talk of “Hoover socialism” seemed to appeal only in the South, where he was expected to win anyway. Hoover takes 369 Electoral Votes and 57.2% of the Popular Vote. Garner wins 162 Electoral Votes and 40.9% of the Popular Vote. The Republican Party picks up five senate seats, thus forming another narrow majority in the Senate. In New York State, former Vice-President Franklin Roosevelt wins the upset of the night over Ambassador Alanson Houghton. Roosevelt’s 2,000 vote victory resurrects him from the political dead. Also that night, the Democratic Party keeps control of the U.S. House of Representatives, but only by 3 seats. Representative Garner will remain on as Majority Leader, since the voters of his district decided to reelect “Cactus Jack” with write-in votes.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 8-12-1928
Event:
At a campaign rally in Chicago Illinois, President Hoover declares that the issue of civil rights “Will be the cornerstone of my new administration.” Hoover comes out against the poll tax and declares that he will fight for a new anti-lynching law. “The African-Americans citizens of our nation are entitled to the right of safety,” Hoover declares in what is one of the strongest speeches of the campaign.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 7-20-1928
Event:
The Republican Convention in Kansas City, Missouri, nominates President Herbert Hoover for a second term and selects Secretary of State Charles Dawes as his new running-mate. President Hoover attends the convention, the first President to do so, and declares to the convention, “We Republicans offer progress to the United States. We offer civil rights and human dignity to the world. We Republicans look to the future, where poverty will become a thing of the past. We are the party of the future, and in this spirit we shall win this election!” With the economy improving and progressive reforms stirring his base, Hoover looks forward to the fall campaign. Also to note is the attendance of Harry Truman, a new Republican, at the convention. He simply observes the goings on, but he is contemplating another run for office. As a Republican in Jackson County, however, he knows his chances of election are quite slim. Maybe Mr. Truman should just stick to his dance club.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 6-28-1928
Event:
The man who brought down several of President Hoover’s progressive reforms, House Majority leader John Garner of Texas, is nominated for President of the United States at the Democratic National Convention at Sam Houston Hall, in Houston, Texas. Majority Leader Garner, a Conservative “dry” Southerner, is paired with Representative James Gallivan of Massachusetts, a Catholic “wet” Boston politician. The addition of Representative Gallivan to the ticket was recognized as a concession to Governor Alfred Smith of New York, a “wet” Catholic Democrat who nearly snagged the Presidential nomination from Garner.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 3-15-1928
Event:
: The New York State Democratic Party holds its primaries for state office. The greatest upset of the night is former Vice-President Franklin D. Roosevelt defeating incumbent Senator Royal Copeland for the Democratic nomination for U.S. Senate. Running as a fiscal conservative and a “wet”, Roosevelt was able to overcome his marital infidelity scandals and ties to the unpopular Cox Administration. The Republicans, having nominated Ambassador Alanson Houghton, view this seat as an expected pick-up.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 2-1-1928
Event:
President Hoover’s tax cuts seem to have steadied the economy. Secretary of the Treasury Andrew Mellon is able to report to the President hat unemployment has hit its lowest point since 1918 and that business is beginning to show new growth. It seems as if the long post-WWI recession has come to a close. However, the high tariffs of the Hoover Administration still remain a burden to business and Wall Street still reins unwatched by the Hoover government.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 6-11-1927
Event:
President Hoover pins the Distinguished Flying Cross on Charles Lindbergh, a self-made aviator who has flown solo from New York City to Paris, France. “In Charles Lindbergh,” President Hoover proudly declares, “The world sees what American ingenuity and hard work can achieve.”

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 4-22-1927
Event:
Due to the massive infrastructure reforms of President Hoover, the Mississippi River Flood of 1927 is less disastrous than many in the weather community had expected. President Hoover is able to create a lose alliance between several southern Governors and the federal government long enough to create some refugee camps for the mostly African-American citizens who were displaced by the flooding. Despite reports of poor conditions from several newspaper reporters, the limited wreckage of the flood allows the refugees to leave the camps in a relatively short period of time.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 4-1-1927
Event:
President Hoover, “Hoover Plan,” is signed by 12-countries, ranging from France to Japan, reducing naval powers by 1/3rd. Secretary of War Henry Stimson and Secretary of State Charles Dawes declare, “An end to the naval arms race.” Hoover’s attempts at being a worldwide “peace maker” seem to be working.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 3-26-1927
Event:
“Big Tom Taken Down” The Kansas City Star blares! The crack down on bootlegging bosses by the Hoover Administration toppled the illegal alcohol empire of Thomas Pendergrast, the leader of the Jackson County Democratic Party. Harry Truman, the kindly owner of “The Tin Can Alley” dance club, is suddenly out of alcohol. In response to this, he simply decides to follow the rule of Prohibition. “You know I think the laws a ton of bullsh**t,” he riley tells Eddie Jacobsen, his business partner, “But now I don’t have nay choice but to be a boy scout about the law.” Truman also sees the corruption of the Democratic Party of Jackson County and greatly respects the progressive stances of President Herbert Hoover, so in March of 1927 he decides to register as a Republican.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 3-10-1927
Event:
The Hoover Administration begins a major crack down on the activities of gangsters in America’s major cities. Under the direction of Attorney General Robert Taft, the IRS and Justice Department begin to prosecute such gangsters as Alphonse Capone and Frank Costello for income tax evasion. Such a policy does not attack their true crime of bootlegging, but it does put the men behind bars. Capone’s own trial in 1928 will be one of the first “media circuses” for the new medium of radio. Hoover’s policies effect many speakeasies throughout the country, as they now have lost their suppliers.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 3-2-1927
Event:
With the Cristero War waging in Mexico, President Hoover initiates his “Good Neighbor Policy” for Central America. The Quaker president offers military security for the nations of Central America which, “Embrace the ideals of freedom of speech, thought, press, and religion.” These thoroughly American ideals are, as Hoover said, “The measuring stick of who are the friends of Americans and who are her enemies.” Hoover and Mexican Ambassador Dwight Morrow will use these points to work out a peace between the Mexican Government (which shows a disdain towards Catholics) and the Catholic Church of Mexico in April of 1927. Murrow will retire as Ambassador to Mexico after this diplomatic triumph.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 2-17-1927
Event:
With House Majority Leader John Nance Garner of Texas keeping his Democratic boys in line, the Interstate Highway Act of 1927 fails by a narrow margin in the House of Representatives. Garner, an expected 1928 Democratic candidate for president, vows to continue fighting against, “The socialist policies of Hoover’s government.” The idea of usable, paved roads does not die with the death of the Interstate Highway Act. In Missouri, businessman Harry Truman forms “The Missouri Road Commission” and urges Jackson County Judge James Pendergrast (a man who served under him in World War I and the son of the political boss who supported him in his failed 1922 bid for the office)to begin building paved roads throughout the county. Not only will Jackson County, Missouri, receive paved roads, but so will most counties in the country by the mid-1930s.

Timeline Number: 770
Timeline Name: Cox Defeats Harding
Date: 2-15-1927
Event:
The Senate, after three days of debate, passes The Interstate Highway Act of 1927. This ambitious goal of the Hoover Administration is touted as, “The new Transcontinental Railroad”, by Nebraska Senator George Norris. Speaker of the House Finis Garrett of Tennessee, a rock-ribbed state’s rights conservative, vows to fight the Interstate Highway Act. With the Republicans in the minority by only 8 seats, the bill may be salvaged, but convincing enough Democrats to break ranks will be a difficult task.

Timeline Number: 3279
Timeline Name: June 1941 German Assault On U.S.
Date: 7-9-1943
Event:
Columbia Project scientists led by refugee Italian physicist Enrico Fermi test the experimental nuclear reactor they have assembled under Stagg Field at Chicago University. The test is successful: the pile “goes critical” without incident, and when its graphite control rods are reinserted, it shuts down as expected.

The scientists are jubilant. The successful test means that they are a large step closer to building an atomic bomb. Their biggest uncertainty concerns what the Nazis are doing along the same lines: uranium fission had been discovered in Nazi Germany, after all, and although it’s taken for granted that the Reich has its own A-bomb program, no one in America knows how far along it is.

Timeline Number: 3279
Timeline Name: June 1941 German Assault On U.S.
Date: 6-1-1943
Event:
With growing numbers of U.S. troops flowing across from Alaska, Siberia is in ferment. On this day, the Free Republic of Siberia is proclaimed.

As was true for the United States, declaring independence is not the same as achieving it. Although U.S. and Siberian rebel forces are driving the Red Army westward, their progress is slow. Matters are not helped, either, by the rebels’ propensity for stopping along the way to root out and slaughter Jews, whom they consider “born Bolsheviks.” Attempts by U.S. commanders to rein in this practice have met with only marginal success.

Konstantin Rodzaevsky continues to claim that he is the rightful leader of "free Siberia." Although neither the U.S. expediionary force nor most of the Russian rebels accept this assertion, the self-proclaimed Vozhd is beginning to gather an armed following, made up of ultranationalists who resent the Americans' insistence that they refrain from slaughtering Siberian Asians, whom they consider racially inferior, and Jews, whom they blame for the Bolshevik revolution.

Timeline Number: 3279
Timeline Name: June 1941 German Assault On U.S.
Date: 10-1-1942
Event:
Rodzaevsky arrives in the Siberian capital, Novosibirsk, and announces that he will tyake command of the Russian National Freedom Front and declares himself Vozhd, or Leader, of “Free Siberia.”

U.S. forces and most of the fighters in the Russian rebel forces do not take him seriously. Rodzaevsky’s years in exile have done nothing for his political support within the Soviet Union, even in Siberia.

Timeline Number: 3279
Timeline Name: June 1941 German Assault On U.S.
Date: 9-1-1942
Event:
Russian National Freedom Front declared. Konstantin Rodzevsky, a Russian fascist who had been operating primarily in Japans-occupied Manchuria, announces he will return to Siberia to assume leadership of the new organization.

Timeline Number: 3279
Timeline Name: June 1941 German Assault On U.S.
Date: 7-21-1942
Event:
The Pacific Fleet arrives at Hawaii. Under heavy fire, an invasion force goes ashore.

Word of the arrival of the fleet spreads rapidly, sparking rebellion throughout the islands. When the Japanese arrived, there had been some native Hawaiians who had seen them as liberators from white rule, but after eight months under the domination of the Japanese military and its Hawaiian collaborators such sentiments have transformed into a bitter hatred for the islands’ new masters.

Timeline Number: 3279
Timeline Name: June 1941 German Assault On U.S.
Date: 7-4-1942
Event:
A massive fleet sets sail from San Francisco toward Hawaii under the command of Admiral “Bull” Halsey and carrying troops led by General Douglas MacArthur. Its mission: liberate the Hawaiian Islands.

Timeline Number: 3279
Timeline Name: June 1941 German Assault On U.S.
Date: 7-1-1942
Event:
Units of the OSS enter Siberia in the wake of Bradley’s army. Their mission is to sabotage Soviet military operations and carry out propaganda offenses to mobilize resistance to Stalin’s regime.

Timeline Number: 3279
Timeline Name: June 1941 German Assault On U.S.
Date: 10-1-1942
Event:
Rodzaevsky arrives in the Siberian capital, Novosibirsk, and announces that he will tyake command of the Russian National Freedom Front and declares himself Vozhd, or Leader, of “Free Siberia.”

Timeline Number: 4125
Timeline Name: Death Cloud
Date: 4-28-1960
Event:
Riots break out in Syria after death clouds kill hundreds of people in Hama,Aleppo,and Damascus.

Timeline Number: 4125
Timeline Name: Death Cloud
Date: 4-25-1960
Event:
A death cloud kills 300 people at a socialist rally in Egypt.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 7-2-1991
Event:
On his syndicated talk show The 700 Club, political televangelist Pat Robertson hails the Sada coup in Iraq. Rev. Robertson is excited because General Sada is a “born-again” Christian; his rise to power in an overwhelmingly Muslim country is seen by Robertson as a fulfillment of “end-times” prophecy.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 7-1-1991
Event:
Iraqi general Georges Hormiz Sada proclaims himself president of Iraq and orders the arrest of Uday and Qusay Hussein.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 6-12-1991
Event:
Saddam Hussein is assassinated in Baghdad. Early reports differ as to who is responsible: there are claims, variously, that he has been slain by dissident military officers angry over Iraq’s humiliation in the just-completed war, Kurdish militants belonging to the PKK terrorist group, or Shiite zealots.

The dictator’s sons appear on Iraqi television, vowing vengeance against their father’s killer or killers and “offering their services” as “temporary” joint heads of state. No one takes them seriously: both Uday and Qusay Hussein are known as simultaneously corrupt, vicious and incompetent.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 11-6-1979
Event:
After initial efforts to persuade the Khomeini regime to order the release of the captive personnel of America’s Tehran embassy fail, President Rockefeller confers with the National Security Council regarding his next options.

Defense Secretary Haig recommends a tough stance, beginning with the immediate freezing of all Iranian government assets within the United States and a warning to Tehran that unless the hostages are quickly released, the U.S. will take military action. The President is reluctant to use force, fearing that such a move will result in the killing of the hostages, but agrees to order a freeze on Iran’s U.S. holdings.

CIA Director Bush suggests that a covert operation to “extract” the hostages may be possible. The President directs him to draw up an action plan for consideration as soon as possible.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 11-4-1979
Event:
The U.S. embassy compound in Tehran is seized by militants, who denounce it as a “nest of spies.” Ambassador Helms’s past history as director of the Central Intelligence Agency makes what might otherwise seem to be an outlandish charge more credible, especially after the militants, ransacking embassy files, discover documents describing CIA operations within Iran.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 10-22-1979
Event:
The exiled Shah arrives in New York City accompanied by an entourage and presenting himself as if he were still a head of state.

Senator Edward Kennedy of Massachusetts issues a statement strongly criticizing the Rockefeller administration for allowing the Shah into the country. Kennedy warns that this action risks signaling to Tehran that Washington still considers Shah Pahlevi the legitimate ruler of Iran. The Senator’s statement is immediately attacked by administration spokesmen and conservative political pundits.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 10-11-1979
Event:
After conferring with Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, Ambassador to Iran Richard Helms and several other top advisers, President Rockefeller decides to allow the exiled Shah to come to the United States for medical treatment.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 10-8-1979
Event:
President Rockefeller, in a telephone conversation with Shah Pahlevi, offers to send top medical experts to Mexico to assist in treating him in a hospital there. The Shah, however, is adamant, insisting that he believes he will die unless he is treated in a U.S. hospital and claiming that America “owes” him as a longtime ally.

Rockefeller does not care for the Shah’s tone, which seems more that of a superior to a subordinate than that a supplicant. Nevertheless, the Shah’s appeal to American political obligations strikes a chord with him.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 10-1-1979
Event:
The exiled Shah of Iran, now residing in Mexico, asks the Rockefeller administration to allow him into the United States for medical treatment of an unspecified “serious illness.” At first, the President is skeptical, suspecting that the Shah is using a claim of medical necessity to get in to the U.S. and will, once on American soil, appeal publicly for asylum, which Rockefeller fears will precipitate a diplomatic crisis with Tehran’s revolutionary government. Within days, however, the administration will learn that the Shah in fact is suffering from malignant lymphoma.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 3-15-1979
Event:
President Rockefeller checks into Walter Reed Hospital for a follow-up examination. Cardiologists decide that in his current condition, surgery would be riskier than outpatient treatment, and prescribe several medications. The President will be released the next day.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 3-11-1979
Event:
President Rockefeller authorizes additional military aid to Nicaragua to help the tottering régime of Anastazio Somoza Debayle hold off left-wing insurgents who call themselves the Sandinista Front.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 1-3-2000
Event:
Al Qaeda terrorists strike at the U.S. guided-missile destroyer USS The Sullivans, ramming it with a motorboat loaded with explosives. The destroyer sinks with all hands. Also killed are the militants aboard the Al Qaeda attack boat.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 11-1-1993
Event:
Veteran Democratic Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan weighs in on the continuing controversy over AmeriCare, stating that “There is no health care crisis in America. There is a health insurance crisis.” Moynihan opposes AmeriCare and favors “negotiation” with private health insurance companies to produce a voluntary plan for covering the uninsured. “The proposal of the Bradley group is incompatible with the free-enterprise system as it operates in this country,” he asserts, dismissing the objection that single-payer systems are used successfully in other Western democracies.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 6-1-1993
Event:
The “Harry and Louise” commercial, paid for by a health insurance industry lobbying group, makes its first appearance on television. It attacks the Bradley group’s proposal and urges viewers to contact their congressmen to oppose AmeriCare.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 5-14-1993
Event:
Vice-President Bradley appears for the first of several days’ testimony before Congress regarding the AmeriCare proposal. He faces hostile questioning from several conservative legislators.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 5-13-1993
Event:
Congress begins debate on the Bradley group’s proposal. Conservatives charge that the Bradley plan is bureaucratic and would dictate to Americans which doctors they could and could not see, essentially placing the medical profession under federal control. Vice-President Bradley personally responds to these claims, “If the critics would take the time to actually read the working group’s proposal before grandstanding, they would see that we have retained the right of individuals to choose their own doctors, including medical providers who do not wish to participate in the system. Neither I nor anyone involved in this project has ever proposed making the medical profession a federal program. We simply wish to guarantee that all Americans have access to adequate medical care, as every other industrial democracy on Earth does.”

Bradley’s response infuriates opponents of the AmeriCare proposal, who blast him as revealing, in the words of Georgia Representative Newt Gingrich, “the sort of Eastern-establishment liberal elitist thinking that sees working-class Americans as vassals of the federal government.”

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 5-12-1993
Event:
Vice-President Bill Bradley’s healthcare working group releases its report, which calls for the establishment of a so-called “single-payer” national health care system, AmeriCare, loosely modeled on that of Canada. The program is intended to cover everyone not already eligible for care under either Medicaid or Medicare.

Reaction is immediate, and, from the GOP, bitterly hostile. The Bradley group’s plan is denounced as “socialist medicine” before the day is out, before anyone among its critics has read anything but a thumbnail summary of it.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 2-1-1979
Event:
Exiled cleric Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini returns to Iran in triumph. Shortly thereafter, he will be installed as head of the newly-proclaimed Islamic Republic of Iran.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 1-26-1979
Event:
Suffering from what the White House press office describes as “gastrointestinal distress,” President Rockefeller checks into Walter Reed Hospital for a thorough examination.

The press release’s bland assurances mask a potentially serious problem. In reality, the President had been suffering from acute chest pains, weakness and shortness of breath, and Walter Reed’s physicians soon confirm that he has a coronary artery blockage which may require surgery.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 1-1-1979
Event:
Revolutionary forces enter the Iranian capital. Tehran. The Shah of Iran and his family flee the country.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 1-2-1979
Event:
At a meeting of the National Security Council, President Rockefeller, Vice-President Laxalt, Secretary of State Kenneth Adelman and Secretary of Defense Alexander Haig concur that the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan must be countered. CIA Director George H. W. Bush suggests that money be funneled to Afghan resistance groups; questioned as to which groups should be favored, Bush recommends that hard-line Islamists be approached, as they are likely to be particularly opposed to the “godless” Soviets.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 1-2-1979
Event:
At a meeting of the National Security Council, President Rockefeller, Vice-President Laxalt, Secretary of State Kenneth Adelman and Secretary of Defense Alexander Haig concur that the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan must be countered. CIA Director George H. W. Bush suggests that money be funneled to Afghan resistance groups; questioned as to which groups should be favored, Bush recommends that hard-line Islamists be approached, as they are likely to be particularly opposed to the “godless” Soviets.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 12-24-1978
Event:
Soviet trops enter Afghanistan following a coup in Kabul which overthrew the pro-Soviet government of Noor Mohammed Taraki and installed Hafizullah Amin in his place. They will overthrow Amin in turn and install a new regime underr Babrak Karmal.

In the U.S., the Soviet action is denounced by Prwesident Rockefeller and, at the U.N., by Vice President Laxalt and the U.S. United Nations representative, Peter G. Peterson.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 10-1-1975
Event:
Angering many Republicans, who had insisted that a Republican be appointed to replace Laxalt, Nevada Governor Mike O’Callaghan, a Democrat, appoints his former lieutenant governor Harry M. Reid to fill out Laxalt’s Senate term.

Reid, considerably more liberal than Laxalt, had challenged the departing Senator for his seat in 1974 and lost by fewer than 600 votes.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 9-22-1975
Event:
Senator Paul Laxalt is confirmed as vice-president by the Senate. Conservatives hail the choice, as they consider the Senator one of their own. There is open speculation about a Laxalt run for the presidency itself in 1980, if Rockefeller chooses not to run again that year--or perhaps even if he does.

Timeline Number: 4234
Timeline Name: Ford killed in 1975
Date: 9-18-1975
Event:
President Rockefeller offers the vice-presidency to Senator Paul D. Laxalt of Nevada. Laxalt accepts, and Rockefeller presents his name to the Senate for confirmation.

Timeline Number: 4261
Timeline Name:
Date: 5-3-1989
Event:
James Callahan is met by a police investigator with the New Orleans Police Department. Mr. Callahan lives in New Orleans and he is told that his wife and 4 children are missing and have been declared missing since the 2nd of February, 1989. He is ruled out as a suspect and he is taken to police headquarters downtown to merely have the police record his background. The investigator, Gregory Engle, tells him to inform Engle of Callahan's background.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 8-25-1991
Event:
A wan Mikhail Gorbachev returns from his Crimean captivity. Technically, he has been restored to power. In prsctice, however, Boris Yeltsin has become the effective master of the Soviet Union, who has exploited his role in the failure of the military coup to gather power into his own hands.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 8-18-1991
Event:
Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev is overthrown in a coup led by hard-line Stalinist military officers unhappy with the results of the Premier’s policies of glasnost and perestroika, which they blame for the collapse of Soviet control over Eastern Europe. He and his wife Raisa are held prisoner at Gorbachev’s dacha in the Crimea. A so-called “Emergency Committe for the Restoration of State Order” proclaims itself the acting government of the USSR.

News of the coup sparks panic buying of gold in Europe, Asia and America. The price of gold, which had stood at $321 per ounce before the takeover, soars.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 8-22-1991
Event:
Faced with mounting resistance to their coup, the “Emergency Committee” and its backers dispatch tanks to the Russian Parliament, where they are confronted by an angry crowd of both armed and unarmed civilians led by a number of Russian parliamentarians, including firebrand Russian President Boris Yeltsin, who will strike a memorably telegenic pose of defiance before the tanks.

Faced with this show of resistance, the troops falter, some of them turning around and a surprising number actually switching sides. With the failure of its assault on the center of resistance at the Parliament building, the coup collapses as junior officers and political officials, including the leadership of the various Soviet republics, turn against the Committee.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 8-18-1989
Event:
Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev is overthrown in a coup led by hard-line Stalinist military officers unhappy with the results of the Premier’s policies of glasnost and perestroika, which they blame for the collapse of Soviet control over Eastern Europe. He and his wife Raisa are held prisoner at Gorbachev’s dacha in the Crimea. A so-called “Emergency Committe for the Restoration of State Order” proclaims itself the acting government of the USSR.

News of the coup sparks panic buying of gold in Europe, Asia and America. The price of gold, which had stood at $321 per ounce before the takeover, soars.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 8-18-1989
Event:
Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev is overthrown in a coup led by hard-line Stalinist military officers unhappy with the results of the Premier’s policies of glasnost and perestroika, which they blame for the collapse of Soviet control over Eastern Europe. He and his wife Raisa are held prisoner at Gorbachev’s dacha in the Crimea. A so-called “Emergency Committe for the Restoration of State Order” proclaims itself the acting government of the USSR.

News of the coup sparks panic buying of gold in Europe, Asia and America. The price of gold, which had stood at $321 per ounce before the takeover, soars.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 12-3-1989
Event:
With the East German Communist state collapsing, Chancellor Egon Krenz is forced from power.

In the United States, President Kemp delivers a speech hailing what he calls “the unstoppable march toward freedom” in Eastern Europe.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 11-10-1989
Event:
East German troops begin dismantling the Berlin Wall.

In the United States, Democratic efforts to credit the fall of the Wall to what Senator Richard Gephardt calls “the patient diplomacy of the cool-headed Kennedy and Hart administrations” are greeted with furious Republican rebuttals. Conservative pundit Patrick Buchanan noted acidly that “patient diplomacy” did not bring down the Wall until a Republican once more occupied the Oval Office. “It’s more likely,” he suggests, “that once a real leader, a real American, was in the White House again, the Soviets knew the jig was up, and lost their nerve.” Why that had not happened earlier, under President Ford or Buchanan’s former employer Richard Nixon, he leaves unsaid.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 11-9-1989
Event:
Communist East Germany opens its borders to the West and allows thousands of its citizens to pass freely through the Berlin Wall.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 10-18-1989
Event:
East German chancellor Erich Honecker is overthrown in a coup and replaced by Communist Party apparatchik Egon Krenz.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 10-10-1989
Event:
Continuing a months-long process in which Hungary’s ruling Communist Party relinquishes its absolute hold on power, it is announced that the Hungarian constitution has been amended to permit a multiparty state.

Timeline Number: 2096
Timeline Name: Charlemagne Marries Irene
Date: 1-1-1000
Event:
By the turn of millennium, factories and industry have exploded across the Roman Empire, and merchants are sending ships from ports on the Mediterranean to Egypt, where goods are carried overland to the Red Sea and then on to Asia and East Africa or out of Gibraltar around to West Africa. The new rich, the Merchants and factory owners of the cities, begin to demand a greater voice. Soon, the Bishops, Freemen's Councils and Mercantile Class are all jostling for power. Now the Empire is one of many industrial cities, governed by an out-of-date clergy and inhabited by factory workers and owners all struggling against the conservative shackles of an obsolete system.

Timeline Number: 2096
Timeline Name: Charlemagne Marries Irene
Date: 1-1-965
Event:
In the roughly fifty years that followed the civil war, more and more efficient farming techniques made it easier for a smaller number of people to farm the same ammount of land, so grain prices fell and drove poor farmers into the Empire's cities. There, wealthy merchants, wanting exotic goods from Africa and Asia built bigger and bigger workshops to make manufactured goods in the cities. Artisans worked with merchants and engineers to make it easier for unskilled workers to manufacture cloth, shoes, books, weapons, etc. in larger and larger factories. Soon, more people were flooding the cities for jobs in the factories, but still faced competition from slaves. The 960s saw a wave of urban unrest that led the empire to ban slavery as unfair competition with urban factory workers. With more goods to trade, more merchants began trading across the Old Silk Route to China, the Trans-Saharan routes to West Africa and so on.

Timeline Number: 2096
Timeline Name: Charlemagne Marries Irene
Date: 2-1-925
Event:
With peace restored (and direct Imperial rule established in the former Frankish lands), the Empire began to hum along again, as it had. Viking raids continued on British and German shores, but generally, the Empire was prosperous. In Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria and Seville, new philosophies were emerging: there was Neo-Aristotelianism, based on the scientific method, Aristotle's thoughts on art and ethics and such. In Rome, the so-called "German School" of thought emphasized masculinity, battle, independence, purity, nature, and conquest. In Seville, the Al-Zarwiim were a new faith that combined Islam, Classical Paganism and Christianity as an alternative to the established, bureaucratic Christian church which people generally found uninteresting.

Timeline Number: 2096
Timeline Name: Charlemagne Marries Irene
Date: 2-16-918
Event:
As the harsh winter begins to warm, the French military leaders have fallen and been murdered by mobs in Frankfurt aM. The leaders of the rebellion welcome the Roman troops that march through over the next few months, restoring the churches, monasteries and government.

Timeline Number: 2096
Timeline Name: Charlemagne Marries Irene
Date: 12-10-917
Event:
By the winter, the Romans have fortified their new frontier on the Rhine and started drafting a pact of Empire with Kenneth of Forth and his British. Meanwhile, deprived of Imperial resources, the French military squeezes the peasants for triple what they normally pay in taxes and close all churches and universities for fear of clerical sympathizers. In doing this, they undermine the nation's basic structure, and the people revolt all across Germany and the East.

Timeline Number: 2096
Timeline Name: Charlemagne Marries Irene
Date: 10-1-917
Event:
As the seasons begin to change, the Mediterranean Romans begin to seek an end to the war before the first snow. Thus, the Emperor issues an ultimatum: the French can accede to direct rule by the Emperor, or be entirely dismissed from the Empire and all their subjects be excommunicated from the Church (and thus damned to Hell). The secular and military minded French leaders choose the latter.

Timeline Number: 2096
Timeline Name: Charlemagne Marries Irene
Date: 8-1-917
Event:
The French military leaders, who began the war with little or no trust for the French Church, accuse the Cardinal of Paris and his church of treason, and have church leaders summarily executed. The pro-Church factions in Paris flee rush to the aid of the Romans, and soon Roman forces capture Paris, pushing the French military to the Rhine by October.

Timeline Number: 2096
Timeline Name: Charlemagne Marries Irene
Date: 7-12-917
Event:
By the middle of summer, Paris has lost its grip on France south of a roughly straight line from Bourdeaux to Dijon and all of Helvetica. Likewise, Ireland and Northern and Western Britain are lost to the rebels led by the charismatic Scotsman Kenneth of Forth. Kenneth's kingdom brings in pagan and christian alike, and drives all French forces into the South East corner of England. So weakened on two fronts, but still strong across Northern France, Germany and the East (Poland, Ukraine, etc.), the French face a long struggle.

Timeline Number: 2096
Timeline Name: Charlemagne Marries Irene
Date: 5-17-917
Event:
The Romans advance the hand of friendship to Bishops and clergy across Provence, Septimania and the Rhone Valley. As news reaches the British that the southern reaches of French territory are going to Rome, revolt among the pagans of Ireland and Britain becomes widespread.

Timeline Number: 2096
Timeline Name: Charlemagne Marries Irene
Date: 5-6-917
Event:
With heavy casualties on both sides, the Romans retreat by sea to Iles d'Hyeres off the coast, while the French retreat to the countryside north of the city, exhausted. The Romans send messengers to the Bishop of Marseilles, making it clear that if he cooperates with Rome, appointment to the College of Cardinals may be in order. Cooperation with France might lead to execution. Convinced, the Bishop welcomes the Romans into the city and denies the French provisions or hospitality of any kind.

Timeline Number: 2096
Timeline Name: Charlemagne Marries Irene
Date: 5-2-917
Event:
The Roman Emperor, Constantine III, sends his forces (80,000 strong)to Marseilles where they meet the full French force of 100,000. While the French have the advantage of numbers and fighting on their own turf, the Romans have somewhat superior weaponry and more troops to fall back on in the Mediterranean. The battle is indecisive and lasts for four days.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 8-17-2000
Event:
Vice-President Bradley secures the Democratic presidential nomination, edging out Al Gore on the first ballot after Ralph Nader, in a surprising move Nader explains as aimed at “party unity,” withdraws his candidacy and directs his delegates to vote for Bradley instead as “the man most likely to carry the Democratic Party to victory in November.”

The New Jerseyan’s victory comes at a price, though. In his acceptance speech, he startles his audience by announcing that he has decided on Ralph Nader as his running-mate. Most people had expected Bradley to attempt to heal the divisions within the Democratic Party by naming Gore. Party insiders speculate that the number-two spot on the ticket was Nader’s demand in exchange for releasing his delegates.

Whatever the truth of the matter, many of Nader’s admirers among the electorate feel that he has sold out: he has done a good job of building a case against the other Democratic candidates, and yet now he will run with one of them.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 8-14-2000
Event:
The 2000 Democratic National Convention opens at the Boston Convention Center in Boston, Massachusetts.

Vice-President Bill Bradley leads challenger Senator Albert A. Gore of Tennessee in delegates. However, insurgent candidate Ralph Nader has complicated the race, having obtained enough delegates of his own to deny Bradley the nomination on the first ballot. If additional balloting is required, all bets are off, as delegates pledged to vote for Bradley on the first round will be free to switch to other candidates.

Timeline Number: 4250
Timeline Name:
Date: 7-4-1999
Event:
Consumer advocate Ralph Nader announces his intention to seek the Democratic presidential nomination.

Many observers are startled. Nader had been blasting both parties for years as “Tweedledee and Tweedledum,” and had even launched an ill-fated third-party run for the presidency in 1996.